Selected publications

  1. A Capacitively-Degenerated 100dB Linear 20-150MS/s Dynamic Amplifier
    M. S. Akter; K.A.A. Makinwa; K. Bult;
    IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits,
    2018.

  2. A Resistor-Based Temperature Sensor with a 0.13pJ·K2 Resolution FOM
    S. Pan; Y. Luo; S.H. Shalmany; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits,
    Volume PP, pp. 1-10, 1 2018.
    Abstract: ...
    This paper describes a high-resolution energy-efficient CMOS temperature sensor, intended for the temperature compensation of MEMS/quartz frequency references. The sensor is based on silicided poly-silicon thermistors, which are embedded in a Wien-bridge RC filter. When driven at a fixed frequency, the filter exhibits a temperature-dependent phase shift, which is digitized by an energy-efficient continuous-time phase-domain delta-sigma modulator. Implemented in a 0.18-μm CMOS technology, the sensor draws 87 μA from a 1.8 V supply and achieves a resolution of 410 μKrms in a 5-ms conversion time. This translates into a state-of-the-art resolution figure-of-merit of 0.13 pJ·K². When packaged in ceramic, the sensor achieves an inaccuracy of 0.2 °C (3σ) from -40 °C to 85 °C after a single-point calibration and a correction for systematic nonlinearity. This can be reduced to ±0.03 °C (3σ) after a first-order fit. In addition, the sensor exhibits low 1/f noise and packaging shift.

  3. Low-Power Active Electrodes for Wearable EEG Acquisition
    J. Xu; R. Yazicioglu; K.A.A. Makinwa; C. Van Hoof;
    Springer, , 2018.

  4. Energy-Efficient Smart Temperature Sensors in CMOS Technology
    K. Souri; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    Springer, , 2018.

  5. Multipath Wide-Bandwidth CMOS Magnetic Sensors
    J. Jiang; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits,
    Volume 52, pp. 198-209, 1 2017.
    Abstract: ...
    This paper proposes a multipath multisensor architecture for CMOS magnetic sensors, which effectively extends their bandwidth without compromising either their offset or resolution. Two designs utilizing the proposed architecture were fabricated in a 0.18-μm standard CMOS process. In the first, the combination of spinning-current Hall sensors and nonspun Hall sensors achieves an offset of 40 μT and a resolution of 272 μTrms in a bandwidth of 400 kHz, which is 40 times more than previous low-offset CMOS Hall sensors. In the second, the combination of spinning-current Hall sensors and pickup coils achieves the same offset, with a resolution of 210 μTrms in a further extended bandwidth of 3 MHz, which is the widest bandwidth ever reported for a CMOS magnetic sensor.

  6. An accurate BJT-based CMOS temperature sensor with Duty-Cycle-Modulated output
    G. Wang; A. Heidari; K.A.A. Makinwa; G.C.M. Meijer;
    IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics,
    Volume 64, 2 2017.
    Abstract: ...
    This paper describes the design of a precision bipolar junction transistor based temperature sensor implemented in standard 0.7-μm CMOS technology. It employs substrate p-n-ps as sensing elements, which makes it insensitive to the effects of mechanical (packaging) stress and facilitates the use of low-cost packaging technologies. The sensor outputs a duty-cycle-modulated signal, which can easily be interfaced to the digital world and, after low-pass filtering, to the analog world. In order to eliminate the errors caused by the component mismatch, chopping and dynamic element matching (DEM) techniques have been applied. The required component shuffling was done concurrently rather than sequentially, resulting in a fast DEM scheme that saves energy without degrading accuracy. After a single-temperature trim, the sensor's inaccuracy is ±0.1 °C (-20 to 60 °C) and ±0.3 °C (-45 to 130 °C), respectively. Measurements of sensors in different packages show that the package-induced shift is less than 0.1 °C. Measurements of eight sensors over 367 days show that their output drift is less than 6 mK. While dissipating only 200 μW, the sensor achieves a resolution of 3 mK (rms) in a 1.8-ms measurement time, and a state-of-the-art resolution figure of merit of 3.2 pJK2. This combination of high accuracy, high resolution, high speed, and low-energy consumption makes this sensor suited for commercial and industrial applications.

  7. A BJT-based Temperature-to-Digital Converter with ±60mK (3σ) Inaccuracy from −55°C to +125°C in 0.16μm Standard CMOS
    B. Yousefzadeh; S.H. Shalmany; K. Makinwa;
    IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits,
    Volume 52, Issue 4, pp. 1044-1052, 4 2017.
    Abstract: ...
    This paper presents a precision CMOS temperature-to-digital converter (TDC), which senses the temperature-dependent base-emitter voltage of substrate PNPs. Measurements on 20 samples from one batch show that it achieves an inaccuracy of ±60 mK (3σ) from -55 °C to +125°C, after a single room-temperature trim. This state-of-the-art result is mainly due to the extensive use of dynamic error cancellation techniques to generate the PNP's collector currents, thus minimizing the spread in their base-emitter voltages, together with a digital PTAT trim to correct for the spread in the PNP's saturation currents. The effect of process variation on the TDC's inaccuracy was investigated by measuring 80 samples from three different batches. Using the same calibration parameters, they exhibit a maximum untrimmed inaccuracy of ±2°C (3σ) from -55°C to +125°C. This drops to ±100 mK (3σ) after a single point trim. The proposed TDC thus reduces calibration costs by obviating the need for batch-specific calibration parameters, which would otherwise require the multipoint calibration of several samples. The effect of the PNP's current gain β was also investigated with the help of a novel β-detection circuit. Implemented in 0.16-μm CMOS, the TDC occupies 0.16 mm2 and draws 4.6 μA from 1.5 to 2 V supply voltages. It achieves a resolution Figure of Merit of 7.8 pJ°C2, and a state-of-the-art supply sensitivity of 0.01°C/V.

  8. A Hybrid Multi-Path CMOS Magnetic Sensor with 76 ppm/˚C Sensitivity Drift and Discrete-Time Ripple Reduction Loops
    J. Jiang; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits,
    Volume 52, pp. 1876 - 1884, 7 2017.
    Abstract: ...
    This paper presents a temperature-insensitive magnetic sensor system for contactless current measurements. To simultaneously achieve wide bandwidth and low noise, the proposed system employs a multi-path structure with a set of spinning current Hall sensors in its low-frequency path and a set of pick-up coils in its high-frequency path. The Hall sensors and pick-up coils are used in a differential sensing arrangement that naturally rejects common-mode magnetic field interference, e.g., due to the earth's magnetic field. A common-mode ac reference field can then be used to continuously stabilize the sensitivity of the Hall sensors, which, unlike that of the pick-up coils, is quite temperature dependent. In this design, the ripple reduction loops in the Hall sensor readout are implemented in a discrete-time manner, and so occupy 20% less area than a previous continuous-time implementation. Over a -45 °C to 105 °C temperature range, the proposed system reduces the Hall sensor drift from 22% to 1%, which corresponds to a temperature coefficient of 76 ppm/°C.

  9. Active Electrodes for Wearable EEG Acquisition: Review and Design Methodology
    J. Xu; S. Mitra; C. Van Hoof; R. Yazicioglu; K.A.A Makinwa;
    IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering,
    Volume PP, pp. 1-1, 2017.
    Abstract: ...
    Active Electrodes (AE), i.e. electrodes with built-in readout circuitry, are increasingly being implemented in wearable healthcare and lifestyle applications due to AE’s robustness to environmental interference. An AE locally amplifies and buffers μV-level EEG signals before driving any cabling. The low output impedance of an AE mitigates cable motion artifacts thus enabling the use of high-impedance dry electrodes for greater user comfort. However, developing a wearable EEG system, with medical grade signal quality on noise, electrode offset tolerance, common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR), input impedance and power dissipation, remains a challenging task. This paper reviews state-of-the-art bio-amplifier architectures and low-power analog circuits design techniques intended for wearable EEG acquisition, with a special focus on AE system interfaced with dry electrodes.

  10. A Dynamic Zoom ADC with 109-dB DR for Audio Applications
    B. Gonen; F. Sebastiano; K. Makinwa;
    IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits,
    Volume 52, pp. 1542-1550, 6 2017.
    Abstract: ...
    This paper presents the first dynamic zoom ADC. Intended for audio applications, it achieves 109-dB DR, 106-dB signal-to-noise ratio, and 103-dB SNDR in a 20-kHz bandwidth, while dissipating only 1.12 mW. This translates into the state-of-the-art energy efficiency as expressed by a Schreier FoM of 181.5 dB. It also achieves the state-of-the-art area efficiency, occupying only 0.16 mm2 in the 0.16- μm CMOS. These advances are enabled by the use of concurrent fine and coarse conversions, dynamic error-correction techniques, and a dynamically biased inverter-based operational transconductance amplifier.

  11. Analysis and Design of VCO-Based Phase-Domain ΣΔ Modulators
    U. Sonmez; F. Sebastiano; K. Makinwa;
    IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I,
    Volume 64, pp. 1075-1084, 5 2017.
    Abstract: ...
    VCO-based phase-domain ΣΔ modulators employ the combination of a voltage-controlled-oscillator (VCO) and an up/down counter to replace the analog loop filter used in conventional ΣΔ modulators. Thanks to this highly digital architecture, they can be quite compact, and are expected to shrink even further with CMOS scaling. This paper describes the analysis and design of such converters. Trade-offs between design parameters and the impact of non-idealities, such as finite counter length and VCO non-linearity, are assessed through both theoretical analysis and behavioral simulations. The proposed design methodology is applied to the design of a phase-to-digital converter in a 40-nm CMOS process, which is used to digitize the output of a thermal-diffusivity temperature sensor, achieving ± 0.2° (3σ) phase inaccuracy from -40 to 125 °C and a sensor-limited resolution of 57 m° (RMS) within a 500-Hz bandwidth. Measurements on the prototype agree quite well with theoretical predictions, thus demonstrating the validity of the proposed design methodology.

  12. A Low-Power Microcontroller in a 40-nm CMOS Using Charge Recycling
    K. Blutman; A. Kapoor; A. Majumdar; J.G. Martinez; L. Sevat; A.P. van der Wel; H. Fatemi; K.A.A. Makinwa; J.P. de Gyvez;
    IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits,
    Volume 52, Issue 4, pp. 950-960, 1 2017.
    Abstract: ...
    A 40-nm microcontroller featuring voltage stacked memory and logic is presented. This involved connecting the power domains of the memory and logic in series, such that the ground of one power domain is connected to the positive supply rail of the other. In this paper, an ARM Cortex-M0+ and its peripherals are powered from 0 V to VDD, while its 4-kB ROM and the 16-kB SRAM are powered from VDD to 2 VDD. Since the memory and logic will, in general, draw different supply currents, the midrail VDD is provided by an on-chip switched capacitor voltage regulator (SCVR). To allow a direct comparison of voltage stacking with a conventional single supply, it can be turned off by configuring the SCVR to power both the memory and logic from 0 V and VDD. Turning on voltage stacking results in 96% power conversion efficiency, while the active converter area is reduced by 2.6×. Despite the use of a smaller SCVR, the voltage stacking reduces the supply noise by 3.4 dB and the output voltage drops from 58 to 36 mV.

  13. A ±36A Integrated Current-Sensing System with 0.3% Gain Error and 400μA Offset from −55°C to +85°C
    S.H. Shalmany; D. Draxelmayr; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits,
    Volume 52, Issue 4, pp. 1034-1043, 4 2017.
    Abstract: ...
    This paper presents an integrated shunt-based current-sensing system (CSS) capable of handling ±36-A currents, the highest ever reported. It also achieves a 0.3% gain error and a 400-μA offset, which is significantly better than the state-of-the-art systems. The heart of the system is a robust 260-μΩ shunt resistor made from the lead frame of a standard HVQFN plastic package. The resulting voltage drop is then digitized by a precision ΔΣ ADC and a bandgap reference (BGR). At the expense of current handling capability, a ±5-A version of the CSS uses a 10-mQ on-chip metal shunt to achieve just a 4-μA offset. Both designs are realized in a standard 0.13-μm CMOS process and draw 13 μA from a 1.5-V supply. Compensation of the spread and nonlinear temperature dependency of the shunt resistor Rshunt is accomplished by the use of a fixed polynomial master curve and a single room temperature calibration. This procedure also effectively compensates for the residual spread and nonlinearity of the ADC and the BGR.

  14. A Compact Thermal-Diffusivity-Based Temperature Sensors in 40-nm CMOS for SoC Thermal Monitoring
    U. Sonmez; F. Sebastiano; K. Makinwa;
    IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits,
    Volume 52, Issue 3, pp. 834-843, March 2017.

  15. A Dynamic Zoom ADC With 109-dB DR for Audio Applications
    Burak Gönen; Fabio Sebastiano; Rui Quan; Robert van Veldhoven; Kofi A.A. Makinwa;
    IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits,
    Volume 52, Issue 6, pp. 1542-1550, June 2017. DOI: 10.1109/JSSC.2017.2669022
    Keywords: CMOS integrated circuits;analogue-digital conversion;audio signal processing;error correction;invertors;operational amplifiers;CMOS;Schreier FoM;area efficiency;audio applications;bandwidth 20 kHz;coarse conversions;concurrent fine conversions;dynamic error-correction techniques;dynamic zoom ADC;dynamically biased inverter;energy efficiency;operational transconductance amplifier;power 1.12 mW;signal-to-noiseratio;size 0.16 mum;Bandwidth;Dynamic range;Linearity;Quantization (signal);Signal resolution;Signal to noise ratio;Vehicle dynamics;Audio;compact ADC;delta sigma;discrete time;dynamic;dynamic range (DR);hybrid ADC;precision;zoom ADC.
    Abstract: ...
    This paper presents the first dynamic zoom ADC. Intended for audio applications, it achieves 109-dB DR, 106-dB signal-to-noise ratio, and 103-dB SNDR in a 20-kHz bandwidth, while dissipating only 1.12 mW. This translates into the state-of-the-art energy efficiency as expressed by a Schreier FoM of 181.5 dB. It also achieves the state-of-the-art area efficiency, occupying only 0.16 mm² in the 0.16-µm CMOS. These advances are enabled by the use of concurrent fine and coarse conversions, dynamic error-correction techniques, and a dynamically biased inverter-based operational transconductance amplifier.

  16. Compact Thermal-Diffusivity-Based Temperature Sensors in 40-nm CMOS for SoC Thermal Monitoring
    U. Sonmez; F. Sebastiano; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits,
    Volume 52, Issue 3, pp. 8, 3 2017.
    Abstract: ...
    An array of temperature sensors based on the thermal diffusivity (TD) of bulk silicon has been realized in a standard 40-nm CMOS process. In each TD sensor, a highly digital voltage-controlled oscillator-based ΣΔ ADC digitizes the temperature-dependent phase shift of an electrothermal filter (ETF). A phase calibration scheme is used to cancel the ADC's phase offset. Two types of ETF were realized, one optimized for accuracy and one optimized for resolution. Sensors based on the accuracy-optimized ETF achieved a resolution of 0.36 °C (rms) at 1 kSa/s, and inaccuracies of ±1.4 °C (3σ, uncalibrated) and ±0.75 °C (3σ, room-temperature calibrated) from -40 °C to 125 °C. Sensors based on the resolution-optimized ETFs achieved an improved resolution of 0.21 °C (rms), and inaccuracies of ±2.3 °C (3σ, uncalibrated) and ±1.05 °C (3σ, room-temperature calibrated). The sensors draw 2.8 mA from supply voltages as low as 0.9 V, and occupy only 1650 μm2, making them some of the smallest smart temperature sensors reported to date, and well suited for thermal monitoring applications in systems-on-chip.

  17. Analysis and Design of VCO-Based Phase-Domain $\Sigma \Delta $ Modulators
    Ugur Sönmez; Fabio Sebastiano; Kofi A. A. Makinwa;
    IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers,
    Volume 64, Issue 5, pp. 1075-1084, May 2017. DOI: 10.1109/TCSI.2016.2638827
    Keywords: CMOS digital integrated circuits;sigma-delta modulation;voltage-controlled oscillators;CMOS process;CMOS scaling;VCO nonlinearity;VCO-based phase-domain S? modulators;analog loop filter;bandwidth 500 Hz;finite counter length;phase-to-digital converter;size 40 nm;temperature -40 C to 125 C;thermal-diffusivity temperature sensor;up-down counter;voltage-controlled-oscillator;Phase modulation;Quantization (signal);Radiation detectors;Temperature sensors;Voltage-controlled oscillators;Phase-to-digital converter;VCO-based sigma-delta modulator;quantization noise;time-to-digital converter.
    Abstract: ...
    VCO-based phase-domain $\Sigma\Delta$ modulators employ the combination of a voltage-controlled-oscillator (VCO) and an up/down counter to replace the analog loop filter used in conventional $\Sigma\Delta$ modulators. Thanks to this highly digital architecture, they can be quite compact, and are expected to shrink even further with CMOS scaling. This paper describes the analysis and design of such converters. Trade-offs between design parameters and the impact of non-idealities, such as finite counter length and VCO non-linearity, are assessed through both theoretical analysis and behavioral simulations. The proposed design methodology is applied to the design of a phase-to-digital converter in a 40-nm CMOS process, which is used to digitize the output of a thermal-diffusivity temperature sensor, achieving 0.2° (3σ) phase inaccuracy from -40 to 125 °C and a sensor-limited resolution of 57 m$\Sigma\Delta$ (RMS) within a 500-Hz bandwidth. Measurements on the prototype agree quite well with theoretical predictions, thus demonstrating the validity of the proposed design methodology.

  18. A CMOS Readout Circuit for Resistive Transducers Based on Algorithmic Resistance and Power Measurement
    Z. Cai; L. Rueda Guerrero; A. Louwerse; H. Suy; R. van Veldhoven; K. Makinwa; M. Pertijs;
    IEEE Sensors Journal,
    2017. in press.

  19. Capacitively-Coupled Chopper Operational Amplifiers
    Q. Fan; K.A.A. Makinwa; J.H. Huising;
    Springer, , 2017.

  20. Hybrid ADCs, Smart Sensors for the IoT, and Sub-1V \& Advanced Node Analog Circuit Design
    P. Harpe; K.A.A. Makinwa; A. Baschirotto;
    Springer, , 2017.

  21. Energy-Efficient High-Resolution Resistor-Based Temperature Sensors
    S. Pan; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    Springer, , 2017.

  22. A Hybrid ADC for High Resolution: The Zoom ADC
    B. Gönen; F. Sebastiano; R. van Veldhoven; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    Springer, , 2017.

  23. A 12μW NPN-based Temperature Sensor with a 18.4pJ·K2 FOM in 0.18μM BCD CMOS
    L. Xu; J.H. Huijsing; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In Proc. Int. Workshop on Advances in Sensors and Interfaces (IWASI),
    June 2017.

  24. A Hybrid ADC for High Resolution: The Zoom ADC
    B. Gönen; F. Sebastiano; R. van Veldhoven; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In Proc. Advances in Analog Circuit Design Workshop (AACD),
    April 2017.

  25. Energy-Efficient High-Resolution Resistor-Based Temperature Sensors
    S. Pan; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In Proc. Advances in Analog Circuit Design Workshop (AACD),
    April 2017.

  26. A Frequency-Locked Loop Based on an Oxide Electrothermal Filter in Standard CMOS
    L. Pedala; C. Gurleyuk; S. Pan; F. Sebastiano; K. Makinwa;
    In European Solid-State Circuits Conference (ESSCIRC),
    Leuven, Belgium, 9 2017.

  27. A 9.1 mW Inductive Displacement-to-Digital Converter with 1.85 nm Resolution
    V. Chaturvedi; J.G. Vogel; K.A.A. Makinwa; S. Nihtianov;
    In Dig. Techn. Paper IEEE Symposium on VLSI Circuits (VLSI),
    6 2017.

  28. A CMOS Temperature Sensor with a 49fJ·K2 Resolution FoM
    S. Pan; H. Jiang; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In Dig. Techn. Paper IEEE Symposium on VLSI Circuits (VLSI),
    6 2017.

  29. A Capacitively-Degenerated 100dB Linear 20-150MS/s Dynamic Amplifier
    M. S. Akter; K.A.A. Makinwa; K. Bult;
    In Dig. Techn. Paper IEEE Symposium on VLSI Circuits (VLSI),
    6 2017.

  30. A Resistor-Based Temperature Sensor with a 0.13pJ·K2 Resolution FOM
    S. Pan; Y. Luo; S.H. Shalmany; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC),
    February 2017.

  31. A BJT-Based Temperature Sensor with a Packaging-Robust Inaccuracy of ±0.3°C (3σ) from -55°C to +125°C After Heater-Assisted Voltage Calibration
    B. Yousefzadeh; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC),
    February 2017.

  32. An Energy-Efficient 3.7nV/√Hz Bridge-Readout IC with a Stable Bridge Offset Compensation Scheme
    H. Jiang; K.A.A. Makinwa; S. Nihtianov;
    In IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC),
    February 2017.

  33. A 0.6nm Resolution 19.8mW Eddy-Current Displacement Sensor Interface with 126MHz Excitation
    V. Chaturvedi; M.R. Nabaviand J. Vogel; K.A.A. Makinwa; S. Nihtianov;
    In IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC),
    February 2017.

  34. A 28 nm 2 GS/s 5-b Low-latency SAR ADC with gm-boosted StrongARM Comparator
    P. Cenci; M. Bolatkale; R. Rutten; G. Lassche; K. Makinwa; L. Breems;
    In European Solid-State Circuits Conference (ESSCIRC),
    2017.

  35. Optimum Synchronous Phase Detection and its Application in Smart Sensor Interfaces
    S. Pan; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS),
    June 2017.

  36. Chopping in Continuous-Time Sigma-Delta Modulators
    H. Jiang; B. Gonen; K.A.A. Makinwa; S. Nihtianov;
    In IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS),
    June 2017.

  37. Next generation CMOS sensors
    K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In Proc. Int. Workshop on Advances in Sensors and Interfaces (IWASI),
    6 2017.

  38. An Energy-Efficient Readout Method for Piezoresistive Differential Pressure Sensors
    H. Jiang; K.A.A. Makinwa; S. Nihitanov;
    In Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IES) 2017: 43rd,
    2017.

  39. A 10kHz-BW 93.7dB-SNR Chopped ΔΣ ADC with 30V Input CM Range and 115dB CMRR at 10kHz
    L. Xu; J.H. Huijsing; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In 2017 IEEE Asian Solid-State Circuits Conference,
    2017.

  40. A 28 nm 2 GS/s 5-b Low-latency SAR ADC with gm-boosted StrongARM Comparator
    P. Cenci; M. Bolatkale; R. Rutten; G. Lassche; K. Makinwa; L. Breems;
    In 2017 IEEE European Solid-State Circuits Conference,
    9 2017.

  41. A compact sensor readout circuit with temperature, capacitance and voltage sensing functionalities
    B. Yousefzadeh; W. Wu; B. Buter; K. Makinwa; M. Pertijs;
    In NXP Low-Power Design Conference,
    NXP, June 2017. (submitted).
    Abstract: ...
    This paper presents an area- and energy-efficient sensor readout circuit, which can precisely digitize temperature, capacitance and voltage. The three modes use only on-chip references and employ a shared zoom ADC based on SAR and ΔΣ conversion to save die area. Measurements on 24 samples from a single wafer show a temperature inaccuracy of ±0.2 °C (3σ) over the military temperature range (-55°C to 125°C). The voltage sensing shows an inaccuracy of ±0.5\%. The sensor also offers 18.7-ENOB capacitance-to-digital conversion, which handles up to 3.8 pF capacitance with a 0.76 pJ/conv.-step energy-efficiency FoM. It occupies 0.33 mm² in a 0.16 μm CMOS process and draws 4.6 μA current from a 1.8 V supply.

  42. A Compact Sensor Readout Circuit with Combined Temperature, Capacitance and Voltage Sensing Functionality
    B. Yousefzadeh; W. Wu; B. Buter; K.A.A. Makinwa; M. Pertijs;
    In Dig. Techn. Paper IEEE Symposium on VLSI Circuits (VLSI),
    IEEE, pp. 1‒2, June 2017. DOI: 10.23919/VLSIC.2017.8008555
    Abstract: ...
    This paper presents an area- and energy-efficient sensor readout circuit, which can precisely digitize temperature, capacitance and voltage. The three modes use only on-chip references and employ a shared zoom ADC based on SAR and ΔΣ conversion to save die area. Measurements on 24 samples from a single wafer show a temperature inaccuracy of ±0.2 °C (3σ) over the military temperature range (-55°C to 125°C). The voltage sensing shows an inaccuracy of ±0.5\%. The sensor also offers 18.7-ENOB capacitance-to-digital conversion, which handles up to 3.8 pF capacitance with a 0.76 pJ/conv.-step energy-efficiency FoM. It occupies 0.33 mm² in a 0.16 μm CMOS process and draws 4.6 μA current from a 1.8 V supply.

  43. A ±5A Integrated Current-Sensing System with ±0.3% Gain Error and 16μA Offset from −55°C to +85°C
    S.H. Shalmany; D. Draxelmayr; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits,
    Volume 51, Issue 4, pp. 800-808, 2016.

  44. A VCO Based Highly Digital Temperature Sensor With 0.034°C/mV Supply Sensitivity
    T. Anand; K.A.A. Makinwa; P.K. Hanumolu;
    IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits,
    Volume 51, Issue 11, pp. 2651-2663, 2016.

  45. A Ratiometric Readout Circuit for Thermal-Conductivity-Based Resistive CO$_2$ Sensors
    Z. Cai; R. H. M. van Veldhoven; A. Falepin; H. Suy; E. Sterckx; C. Bitterlich; K. A. A. Makinwa; M. A. P. Pertijs;
    IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits,
    Volume 51, Issue 10, pp. 2453‒2474, October 2016. DOI: 10.1109/jssc.2016.2587861
    Abstract: ...
    This paper reports a readout circuit for a resistive CO2 sensor, which operates by measuring the CO2-dependent thermal conductivity of air. A suspended hot-wire transducer, which acts both as a resistive heater and temperature sensor, exhibits a CO2-dependent heat loss to the surrounding air, allowing CO2 concentration to be derived from its temperature rise and power dissipation. The circuit employs a dual-mode incremental delta-sigma ADC to digitize these parameters relative to those of an identical, but isolated, reference transducer. This ratiometric approach results in a measurement that does not require precision voltage or power references. The readout circuit uses dynamically-swapped transducer pairs to cancel their baseline-resistance, so as to relax the required dynamic range of the ADC. In addition, dynamic element matching (DEM) is used to bias the transducer pairs at an accurate current ratio, making the measurement insensitive to the precise value of the bias current. The readout circuit has been implemented in a standard 0.16 μm CMOS technology. With commercial resistive micro-heaters, a CO2 sensing resolution of about 200 ppm (1σ) was achieved in a measurement time of 30 s. Similar results were obtained with CMOS-compatible tungsten-wire transducers, paving the way for fully-integrated CO2 sensors for air-quality monitoring.

  46. Wideband Continuous-time Σ∆ ADCs, Automotive Electronics, and Power Management: Advances in Analog Circuit Design 2016
    A. Baschirotto; P. Harpe; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    Springer, , 2016.

  47. A Micro-Power Temperature-to-Digital Converter for Use in a MEMS-Based 32 kHz Oscillator
    S. Zaliasl; J. Salvia; T. Fiez; K.A.A. Makinwa; A. Partridge; V. Menon;
    Switzerland: Springer, , 2016.

  48. Advances in Low-Offset Opamps
    Q. Fan; J.H. Huising; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    Switzerland: Springer, , 2016.

  49. An Oxide Electrothermal Filter in Standard CMOS
    L. Pedalà; U. Sönmez; F. Sebastiano; K.A.A. Makinwa; K. Nagaraj; J. Park;
    In 2016 IEEE Sensors,
    Orlando, FL, USA, pp. 343-345, November 2016.

  50. An Integrated Carbon Dioxide Sensor for Air-Quality Monitoring
    Z. Cai; R.H.M. van Veldhoven; A. Falepin; H. Suy; E. Sterckx; C. Bitterlich; K.A.A. Makinwa; M.A.P. Pertijs;
    In Proc. Conference for ICT-Research in the Netherlands (ICT.OPEN),
    The Netherlands, March 2016.

  51. A 1.65mW 0.16mm² Dynamic Zoom-ADC with 107.5dB DR in 20kHz BW
    B. Gönen; F. Sebastiano; van R. Veldhoven; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In 2016 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC),
    IEEE, pp. 282-283, Feb 2016.

  52. A Hybrid Multi-path CMOS Magnetic Sensor with 210µTrms Resolution and 3MHz Bandwidth for Contactless Current Sensing
    J. Jiang; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In 2016 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC),
    IEEE, pp. 204-205, Feb 2016.

  53. A Microcontroller with 96% Power-Conversion Efficiency using Stacked Voltage Domains
    B. Blutman; A. Kapoor; A. Majumdar; J.G. Martinez; J. Echeverri; L. Sevat; A. van der Wel; H. Fatemi; J.P. de Gyvez; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In Dig. Techn. Paper IEEE Symposium on VLSI Circuits (VLSI),
    IEEE, pp. 1-2, June 2016.

  54. 1650µm² Thermal-Diffusivity Sensors with Inaccuracies Down to ±0.75°C in 40nm CMOS
    U. Sonmez; F. Sebastiano; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In 2016 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC),
    IEEE, pp. 206-207, Feb 2016.

  55. A BJT-based Temperature-to-Digital Converter with ±60mK (3σ) Inaccuracy from -70°C to 125°C in 160nm CMOS
    B. Yousefzadeh; S.H. Shalmany; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In Dig. Techn. Paper IEEE Symposium on VLSI Circuits (VLSI),
    IEEE, pp. 1-2, June 2016.

  56. A ± 36A Integrated Current-Sensing System with 0.3% Gain Error and 400μA Offset from −55°C to +85°C
    S.H. Shalmany; D. Draxelmayr; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In Dig. Techn. Paper IEEE Symposium on VLSI Circuits (VLSI),
    IEEE, pp. 1-2, June 2016.

  57. A hybrid multi-path CMOS magnetic sensor with 76 ppm/°C sensitivity drift
    J. Jiang; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In European Solid-State Circuits Conference, ESSCIRC Conference 2016: 42nd,
    IEEE, pp. 397-400, Sep 2016.

  58. 1650µm² Thermal-Diffusivity Sensors with Inaccuracies Down to ±0.75$^\circ$C in 40nm CMOS
    Ugur Sönmez; Fabio Sebastiano; Kofi A.A. Makinwa;
    In International Solid-state Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers,
    San Francisco, CA, pp. 206-207, Jan 2016. DOI: 10.1109/ISSCC.2016.7417979
    Keywords: CMOS integrated circuits;calibration;delta-sigma modulation;temperature sensors;thermal diffusivity;CMOS;digital phase-domain ?S ADC;phase-calibration scheme;scaling;single-point trim;size 40 nm;smart temperature sensors;temperature -40 degC to 125 degC;thermal monitoring;thermal-diffusivity sensors;CMOS integrated circuits;Monitoring;Radiation detectors;Temperature measurement;Temperature sensors.
    Abstract: ...
    This work presents a thermal diffusivity (TD) sensor realized in nanometer (40nm) CMOS that demonstrates that the performance of such sensors continues to improve with scaling. Without trimming, the sensor achieves 1.4C (3s) inaccuracy from -40 to 125C, which is a 5 improvement over previous (non-TD) sensors intended for thermal monitoring. This improves to 0.75C (3s) after a single-point trim, a level of accuracy that previously would have required two-point trimming. Furthermore, it operates from supply voltages as low as 0.9V, and occupies only 1650 m2, making it one of the smallest smart temperature sensors reported to date. These advances are enabled by the use of a phase-calibration scheme and a highly digital phase-domain ?S ADC.

  59. A 1.65mW 0.16mm² Dynamic Zoom-ADC with 107.5dB DR in 20kHz BW
    Burak Gönen; Fabio Sebastiano; and Robert.van Veldhoven; Kofi A.A. Makinwa;
    In International Solid-state Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers,
    San Francisco, CA, pp. 282-283, Jan 2016. DOI: 10.1109/ISSCC.2016.7418017
    Keywords: codecs;delta-sigma modulation;energy conservation;error correction;invertors;operational amplifiers;SNR;acoustic noise;audio codec;automotive application;bandwidth 20 kHz;dynamic zoom-ADC;echo cancellation;energy-efficient SAR ADC;error-correction technique;inverter-based OTA;low-distortion ?S ADC;operational transconductance amplifier;power 1.65 mW;quasistatic signal;signal-noise ratio;smartphone;stereo channel;successive approximation register analog-digital converter;Bandwidth;Capacitors;Energy efficiency;Linearity;Modulation;Solid state circuits;Vehicle dynamics.
    Abstract: ...
    Audio codecs for automotive applications and smartphones require up to five stereo channels to achieve effective acoustic noise and echo cancellation, thus demanding ADCs with low power and minimal die area. Zoom-ADCs should be well suited for such applications, since they combine compact and energy-efficient SAR ADCs with low-distortion ?S ADCs to simultaneously achieve high energy efficiency, small die area, and high linearity [1,2]. However, previous implementations were limited to the conversion of quasi-static signals, since the two ADCs were operated sequentially, with a coarse SAR conversion followed by, a much slower, fine ?S conversion. This work describes a zoom-ADC with a 20kHz bandwidth, which achieves 107.5dB DR and 104.4dB SNR while dissipating 1.65mW and occupying 0.16mm2. A comparison with recent state-of-the-art ADCs with similar resolution and bandwidth [3-7] shows that the ADC achieves significantly improved energy and area efficiency. These advances are enabled by the use of concurrent fine and coarse conversions, dynamic error-correction techniques, and an inverter-based OTA.

  60. RATIOMETRIC DEVICE
    Z. Cai; M. A. P. Pertijs; R. H. M. van Veldhoven; K. A. A. Makinwa;
    Patent, United States 2016/0109396, April~21 2016.

  61. Phase-domain digitizer
    K.A.A. Makinwa; R. Quan;
    Patent, 9,276,792, March 1 2016.

  62. Efficient Analog to Digital Converter
    B. Gönen; F. Sebastiano; K.A.A. Makinwa; R.H.M. van Veldhoven;
    Patent, 9,325,340, April 26 2016.

  63. Fast-Settling Capacitive-Coupled Amplifiers
    J.H. Huijsing; Q. Fan; K.A.A. Makinwa; D. Fu; J. Wu; L. Zhou;
    Patent, 9,294,049, March 22 2016.

  64. Efficient analog to digital converter
    Burak Gönen; Fabio Sebastiano; Kofi A. A. Makinwa; Robert H. M. van Veldhoven;
    Patent, Europe 9325340, April 2016.

  65. A 3 ppm 1.5 x 0.8 mm2 1.0 µA 32.768 kHz MEMS-based oscillator
    S. Zaliasl; J.C. Salvia; G.C. Hill; L. Chen; K. Joo; R. Palwai; N. Arumugam; M. Phadke; S. Mukherjee; HC Lee; C Grosjean; PM Hagelin; S Pamarti; TS Fiez; K.A.A. Makinwa; A. Partridge; V. Menon;
    IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits,
    Volume 50, Issue 1, pp. 291-302, 2015. Available online 3-11-2014.

  66. A thermistor-based temperature sensor for a real-time clock with ±2 ppm frequency stability
    P. Park; D. Ruffieux; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits,
    Volume 50, Issue 7, pp. 1571-1580, 2015. Available online 20-4-2015.

  67. A 15-Channel digital active electrode system for multi-parameter biopotential measurement
    J. Xu; B. Busze; C. van Hoof; K.A.A. Makinwa; R.F. Yazicioglu;
    IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits,
    Volume 50, Issue 9, pp. 2090-2100, 2015. Available online 1-5-2015.

  68. Efficient sensor interfaces, advanced amplifiers and low power RF systems: Advances in analog circuit design 2015
    K.A.A. Makinwa;
    Springer, , 2015.

  69. High-performance AD and DA converters, IC design in scaled technologies, and time-domain signal processing: Advances in analog circuit design 2014
    K.A.A. Makinwa;
    Spriger, Volume Analog Circuit Design ser , 2015. 23rd workshop on Advances in Analog Circuit Design (AACD) Lisbon, Portugal, in April 8¿10, 2014.

  70. A 110dB SNR ADC with ±30V input common-mode range and 8¿V Offset for current sensing applications
    L. Xu; B. Gönen; Q. Fan; J.H. Huijsing; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In M Romdhane; LC Fujino; J Anderson (Ed.), Proceedings of the 2015 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference,
    IEEE, pp. 89-91, 2015. Harvest Session 5.2.

  71. A ratiometric readout circuit for thermal-conductivity-based resistive gas sensors
    Z. Cai; R. H. M. van Veldhoven; A. Falepin; H. Suy; E. Sterckx; K. A. A. Makinwa; M. A. P. Pertijs;
    In Proc. European Solid-State Circuits Conference (ESSCIRC),
    IEEE, pp. 275‒278, September 2015. DOI: 10.1109/esscirc.2015.7313880

  72. A 0.02mm2 Embedded Temperature Sensor with ±2°C Inaccuracy for Self-Refresh Control in 25nm Mobile DRAM
    Y.Y. Kim; W. Choi; J. Kim; S. Lee; S Lee; H. Kim; K.A.A. Makinwa; Y. Chae; TW Kim;
    In W Pribyl; F Dielacher; G Hueber (Ed.), Proc. European Solid-State Circuits Conference (ESSCIRC),
    IEEE, pp. 267-270, 2015.

  73. A 110dB SNR ADC with ±30V input common-mode range and 8μV Offset for current sensing applications
    L. Xu, B. Gonen, Q. Fan, J.H. Huijsing; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In Digest of Technical Papers - 2015 IEEE International Solid-state Circuits Conference,
    San Francisco, CA, pp. 90 - 93, Feb 2015.

  74. A multi-path CMOS Hall sensor with integrated ripple reduction loops
    J. Jiang; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In F Zhang (Ed.), Proceedings of the IEEE Asian Solid-State Circuits Conference,
    IEEE, pp. 1-4, 2015. harvest.

  75. A Self-referenced VCO-based Temperature Sensor with 0.034°C /mV Supply Sensitivity in 65nm CMOS
    T. Anand; K.A.A. Makinwa; P.K. Hanumolu;
    In M Motomura (Ed.), Proceedings of the Symposium on VLSI Circuits,
    IEEE, pp. C200-C201, 2015.

  76. A Fully Integrated ±5A Current-Sensing System with ±0.25% Gain Error and 12uA Offset from -40°C to +85°C
    S. Heidary Shalmany; G. Beer; D. Draxelmayr; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In M Motomura (Ed.), Proceedings of the Symposium on VLSI Circuits,
    IEEE, pp. C298-C299, 2015.

  77. A 2800-µm² Thermal-Diffusivity Temperature Sensor with VCO-Based Readout in 160-nm CMOS
    Jan Angevare; Lorenzo Pedalà; Ugur Sonmez; Fabio Sebastiano; Kofi A.A. Makinwa;
    In Asian Solid-state Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers,
    Xiamen, China, pp. 1-4, Nov 2015. DOI: 10.1109/ASSCC.2015.7387444
    Keywords: CMOS digital integrated circuits;analogue-digital conversion;computerised monitoring;digital readout;temperature sensors;thermal diffusivity;voltage-controlled oscillators;VCO-based phase-domain ADC;VCO-based readout;bulk silicon;digital circuitry;highly digital temperature sensor;microprocessors;size 160 nm;standard CMOS process;systems-on-chip;temperature -35 degC to 125 degC;temperature-dependent thermal diffusivity;thermal monitoring;CMOS integrated circuits;CMOS process;Heating;Radiation detectors;Temperature measurement;Temperature sensors.
    Abstract: ...
    A highly digital temperature sensor based on the temperature-dependent thermal diffusivity of bulk silicon has been realized in a standard 160-nm CMOS process. The sensor achieves an inaccuracy of 2.9C (3a) from -35C to 125C with no trimming and 1.2C (3a) after a single-point trim, while achieving a resolution of 0.47C (rms) at 1 kSa/s. Its compact area (2800 m2) is enabled by the adoption of a VCO-based phase-domain ADC. Since 53% of the sensor area is occupied by digital circuitry, the sensor can be easily ported to more advanced CMOS technologies with further area reduction, which makes it well suited for thermal monitoring in microprocessors and other systems-on-chip.

  78. A 25mW Smart CMOS Wind Sensor with Corner Heaters
    Wouter Brevet; Fabio Sebastiano; Kofi A.A. Makinwa;
    In 41st Annual Conference of IEEE Industrial Electronics Society,
    Yokohama, Japan, pp. 001194-001199, Nov 2015. DOI: 10.1109/IECON.2015.7392262
    Keywords: CMOS integrated circuits;heating;intelligent sensors;wind power;wires (electric);corner heater;logic on-chip;power 25 mW;sensor bitstream output off-chip decimation;sensor chip thermal design;size 0.7 mum;smart CMOS thermal wind sensor;standard CMOS process;Clocks;Frequency modulation;Heating;Thermal sensors;Wind speed;Electrothermal filter (ETF);Smart wind sensor;Thermal sensors;thermal sigma-delta modulatiom.
    Abstract: ...
    A smart CMOS thermal wind sensor has been optimized for commercial use. Optimizing the sensor chip's thermal design resulted in better area efficiency and improved thermal dynamics with respect to prior work. The latter simplifies the off-chip decimation of the sensor's bitstream outputs. Moreover, by realizing more logic on-chip, the number of bond wires has been reduced by 33%, to 8, thus reducing manufacturing costs. Fabricated in a standard 0.7m CMOS process, the sensor chip occupies 44mm2 and consumes 25mW of heating power, while achieving an inaccuracy of 6% (speed) and 2 (direction), for wind speeds between 4 and 25m/s.

  79. An integrated carbon dioxide sensor based on ratiometric thermal-conductivity measurement
    Z. Cai; van R. H. M. Veldhoven; A. Falepin; H. Suy; E. Sterckx; K. A. A. Makinwa; M. A. P. Pertijs;
    In Proc. International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (TRANSDUCERS),
    IEEE, pp. 622‒625, June 2015. DOI: 10.1109/transducers.2015.7181000

  80. A generic read-out circuit for resistive transducers
    B. Yousefzadeh; U. Sonmez; N. Mehta; J. Borremans; M. A. P. Pertijs; K. A. A. Makinwa;
    In Proc. IEEE International Workshop on Advances in Sensors and Interfaces (IWASI),
    IEEE, pp. 122‒125, June 2015. DOI: 10.1109/iwasi.2015.7184929

  81. Fully Capacitive Coupled Input Choppers
    J.H. Huijsing, Q. Fan; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    Patent, US 9,143,092, September 2015.

  82. Metal Shunt Resistor
    D. Draxelmayr; S. Shalmany; K. Makinwa;
    Patent, 20170074912, 9 2015.

  83. A continuous-time ripple reduction technique for spinning-current Hall sensors
    J. Jiang; W.J. Kindt; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits,
    Volume 49, Issue 7, pp. 1525-1534, 2014. Harvest.

  84. A wearable 8-channel active-electrode EEG/ETI acquisition system for body area networks
    J. Xu; S. Mitra; A. Matsumoto; S. Patki; C. van Hoof; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits,
    Volume 49, Issue 9, pp. 2005-2016, 2014. Harvest Available online 12-6-2014.

  85. Recoding of the stop codon UGA to glycine by a BD1-5/SN-2 bacterium and niche partitioning between Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria in a tidal sediment microbial community naturally selected in a laboratory chemostat
    A. Hanke; E. Hamann; R. Sharma; J. Geelhoed; T. Hargesheimer; B. Kraft; V. Meyer; S. Lenk; H Osmers; R. Wu; K.A.A. Makinwa; RL Hettich; JF Banfield; HE Tegetmeyer; Marc Strous;
    Frontiers in Microbiology,
    Volume 5, Issue art. 231, pp. 1-17, 2014.

  86. Smart sensor systems: Emerging technologies and applications
    G. Meijer; K. Makinwa; M. Pertijs;
    John Wiley \& Sons, , 2014.
    Abstract: ...
    With contributions from an internationally-renowned group of experts, this book uses a multidisciplinary approach to review recent developments in the field of smart sensor systems, covering important system and design aspects. It examines topics over the whole range of sensor technology from the theory and constraints of basic elements, physics and electronics, up to the level of application-orientated issues.

    document

  87. Time-Domain Techniques for mm-Wave Frequency Generation
    K.A.A. Makinwa;
    P. Harpe; A Baschirotto; K.A.A. Makinwa (Ed.);
    Springer, , pp. 341-360, 2014.

  88. Time-Domain Signal Processing
    K.A.A. Makinwa;
    P. Harpe; A Baschirotto; K.A.A. Makinwa (Ed.);
    Springer, , pp. 297-298, 2014.

  89. A BJT-based CMOS temperature sensor with a 3.6pJ·K2-resolution FoM
    A. Heidary; Guijie Wang; K.A.A. Makinwa; G.C.M. Meijer;
    In LC Fujino; {Anderson et al}, J (Ed.), Digest of Technical Papers - 2014 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference,
    IEEE, pp. 224-225, 2014. Harvest Session 12. Sensors, Mems, and Displays 12.8.

  90. A resistor-based temperature sensor for a real time clock with ±2ppm frequency stability
    P. Park; K.A.A. Makinwa; D. Ruffieux;
    In P Andreani; A Bevilacqua; G Meneghesso (Ed.), Proceedings of the 40th European Solid-State Circuit Conference,
    IEEE, pp. 391-394, 2014. Harvest.

  91. A 60nV/Hz 15-channel digital active electrode system for portable biopotential signal acquisition
    J. Xu; B. Busze; H. Kim; K.A.A. Makinwa; C. van Hoof; R.F. Yazicioglu;
    In LC Fujino; J Anderson; D Dunwell; V Gaudet; G Gulak; J Haslett; S Mirabbasi; K Pagiamtzis; KC. Smith (Ed.), Digest of Technical papers - 2014 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference,
    IEEE, pp. 424-425, 2014. Harvest Session 24. Integrated Biomedical Systems 24.7.

  92. A 0.85V 600nW All-CMOS temperature sensor with an inaccuracy of ±0.4°C (3σ) from -40 to 125°C
    K. Souri; Y. Chae; F. Thus; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In LC Fujino; J Anderson; D Dunwell; V Gaudet; G Gulak; J Haslett; S Mirabbasi; K Pagiamtzis; KC. Smith (Ed.), Digest of Technical papers - 2014 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference,
    IEEE, pp. 222-223, 2014. Harvest Session 12. Sensors, Mems, and Displays 12.7.

  93. A 1.55×0.85mm2 3ppm 1.0μA 32.768kHz MEMS-based oscillator
    S.Z. Asl; S. Mukherjee; W. Chen; Kimo Joo; R. Palwai; N. Arumugam; P. Galle; M. Phadke; C Grosjean; J.C. Salvia; H Lee; S Pamarti; TS Fiez; K.A.A. Makinwa; A. Partridge; V. Menon;
    In LC Fujino; J Anderson; {et al} (Ed.), Digest of Technical Papers - 2014 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference,
    IEEE, pp. 226-227, 2014. Harvest Session 12. Sensors, MEMS and Displays 12.9.

  94. A 0.008-mm² area-optimized thermal-diffusivity-based temperature sensor in 160-nm CMOS for SoC thermal monitoring
    Ugur Sonmez; Rui Quan; Fabio Sebastiano; Kofi. A. A. Makinwa;
    In Proc. European Solid-State Circuits Conference,
    Venice, Italy, pp. 395-398, September22--26 2014. DOI: 10.1109/ESSCIRC.2014.6942105
    Keywords: CMOS integrated circuits;system-on-chip;temperature measurement;temperature sensors;thermal diffusivity;SoC thermal monitoring;area-optimized thermal-diffusivity-based temperature sensor;bulk silicon;microprocessors;size 160 nm;standard CMOS process;systems-on-chip;temperature-dependent thermal diffusivity;thermal monitoring;Accuracy;Heating;System-on-chip;Temperature measurement;Temperature sensors.
    Abstract: ...
    An array of temperature sensors based on the temperature-dependent thermal diffusivity of bulk silicon has been realized in a standard 160-nm CMOS process. The sensors achieve an inaccuracy of ±2.4 °C (3σ) from -40 to 125 °C with no trimming and ±0.65 °C (3σ) with a one temperature trim. Each sensor occupies 0.008 mm², and achieves a resolution of 0.21 °C (rms) at 1 kSa/s. This combination of accuracy, speed, and small size makes such sensors well suited for thermal monitoring in microprocessors and other systems-on-chip.

  95. ADC, a temperature sensor, a non-contact transponder, and a method of converting analog signals to digital signals
    K.A.A. Makinwa; K. Souri;
    Patent, US 8,665,130, March 2014.

  96. Multiple electrothermal-filter device
    K.A.A. Makinwa; C.P.L Van Vroonhoven;
    Patent, US 8,870,454, October 2014.

  97. A 256 pixel magnetoresistive biosensor microarray in 0.18 μm CMOS
    D.A. Hall; R.S. Gaster; K.A.A. Makinwa; S.X. Wang; B. Murmann;
    IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits,
    Volume 48, Issue 5, pp. 1290-1301, 2013. Harvest.

  98. A 6.3 μW 20 bit incremental zoom-ADC with 6 ppm INL and 1 μV offset
    Y. Chae; K. Souri; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits,
    Volume 48, Issue 12, pp. 3019-3027, 2013. Harvest.

  99. Measurement and analysis of current noise in chopper amplifiers
    J. Xu; Q. Fan; J.H. Huijsing; C. van Hoof; R.F. Yazicioglu; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits,
    Volume 48, Issue 7, pp. 1575-1584, 2013. Harvest.

  100. A CMOS temperature sensor with a voltage-calibrated inaccuracy of ±0.15°C (3σ) from -55 to 125°C
    K. Souri; Y. Chae; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits,
    Volume 48, Issue 1, pp. 292-301, 2013. Published online Oktober 2012; printed version January 2013.

  101. A Low-Power CMOS Smart Temperature Sensor with a Batch-Calibrated Inaccuracy of ±0.25°C (±3σ) from -70°C to 130°C
    A. Aita; M. Pertijs; K. Makinwa; J. Huijsing; G. Meijer;
    IEEE Sensors Journal,
    Volume 13, Issue 5, pp. 1840‒1848, May 2013. DOI: 10.1109/JSEN.2013.2244033
    Abstract: ...
    In this paper, a low-power CMOS smart temperature sensor is presented. The temperature information extracted using substrate PNP transistors is digitized with a resolution of 0.03°C using a precision switched-capacitor (SC) incremental ΔΣ A/D converter. After batch calibration, an inaccuracy of ±0.25°C (±3) from -70°C to 130°C is obtained. This represents a two-fold improvement compared to the state-of-the-art. After individual calibration at room temperature, an inaccuracy better than ±0.1°C over the military temperature range is obtained, which is in-line with the state-of-the-art. This performance is achieved at a power consumption of 65 μW during a measurement time of 100 ms, by optimizing the power/inaccuracy tradeoffs, and by employing a clock frequency proportional to absolute temperature. The latter ensures accurate settling of the SC input stage at low temperatures, and reduces the effects of leakage currents at high temperatures.

  102. Electrothermal Frequency References in Standard CMOS
    S.M. Kashmiri; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    Springer Verlag, in Analog Circuits and Sinal Processing, 2013.

  103. Precision Instrumentation Amplifiers and Read-Out Integrated Circuits
    R. Wu; J.H. Huijsing; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    Springer New York, in Analog Circuits and Sinal Processing, 2013. Published as e-book in 2012; printed version 2013.

  104. Mobility-based Time References for Wireless Sensor Networks
    Fabio Sebastiano; Lucien J. Breems; Kofi A.A. Makinwa;
    Springer, , 2013.
    Abstract: ...
    This book describes the use of low-power low-cost and extremely small radios to provide essential time reference for wireless sensor networks. The authors explain how to integrate such radios in a standard CMOS process to reduce both cost and size, while focusing on the challenge of designing a fully integrated time reference for such radios. To enable the integration of the time reference, system techniques are proposed and analyzed, several kinds of integrated time references are reviewed, and mobility-based references are identified as viable candidates to provide the required accuracy at low-power consumption. Practical implementations of a mobility-based oscillator and a temperature sensor are also presented, which demonstrate the required accuracy over a wide temperature range, while drawing 51-µW from a 1.2-V supply in a 65-nm CMOS process.

  105. A 0.25mm2 AC-biased MEMS microphone interface with 58dBA SNRt
    S. Ersoy, R. van Veldhoven, F. Sebastiano, K. Reimann; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In A Chandrakasan; B. Nauta (Ed.), Digest of Technical Papers - 2013 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC 2013),
    IEEE, pp. 382-383, 2013. Harvest Session 15.

  106. A ±5A battery current sensor with ±0.04% gain error from -55°C to +125°C
    S. Heidary Shalmany; K.A.A. Makinwa; D. Draxelmayr;
    In {De Venuto et al}, D (Ed.), Proceedings 2013 5th IEEE International Workshop on Advances in Sensors and Interfaces,
    IEEE, pp. 117-120, 2013.

  107. A multi-path chopper-stabilized capacitively coupled operational amplifier with 20V-input-common-mode range and 3μV offset
    Q. Fan; J.H. Huijsing; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In A Chandrakasan (Ed.), Digest of Technical Papers - 2013 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC 2013),
    IEEE, pp. 176-177, 2013. Harvest Session 10.

  108. A micropower battery current sensor with ±0.03% (3σ) Inaccuracy from -40 to +85°C
    S. Heidary Shalmany; D. Draxelmayr; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In A Chandrakasan; B. Nauta (Ed.), Digest of Technical Papers - 2013 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC 2013),
    IEEE, pp. 386-387, 2013. Harvest Session 22.

  109. A 6.3μW 20b incremental zoom-ADC with 6ppm INL and 1μV offset
    Y. Chae; K. Souri; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In A Chandrakasan; B. Nauta (Ed.), Digest of Technical Papers - 2013 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC 2013),
    IEEE, pp. 276-277, 2013. Harvest Session 15.

  110. A resistor-based temperature sensor for MEMS frequency references
    M. Shahmohammadi; K. Souri; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In S. Rusu; Y. Deval (Ed.), Proceedings 39th European Solid-State Circuits Conference,
    IEEE, pp. 225-228, 2013. Harvest.

  111. A continuous-time ripple reduction technique for spinning-current Hall sensors
    J. Jiang; K.A.A. Makinwa; W.J. Kindt;
    In S. Rusu; Y. Deval (Ed.), Proceedings 39th European Solid-State Circuits Conference,
    IEEE, pp. 217-220, 2013. Harvest.

  112. Minimum energy point tracking for sub-threshold digital CMOS circuits using an in-situ energy sensor
    N. Mehta; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In CW. Chen; W Gao; J Vandewalle (Ed.), Proceedings - IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS 2013),
    IEEE, pp. 570-573, 2013. Harvest Article number: 6571906.

  113. A 40µW CMOS temperature sensor with an inaccuracy of ±0.4°C (3σ) from -55°C to 200°C
    K. Souri; K Souri; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In S. Rusu; Y. Deval (Ed.), Proceedings 39th European Solid-State Circuits Conference,
    IEEE, pp. 221-224, 2013. Harvest.

  114. A 20-b ± 40-mV range read-out IC with 50-nV offset and 0.04% gain error for bridge transducers
    R. Wu; Y. Chae; J.H. Huijsing; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits,
    Volume 47, Issue 9, pp. 2152-2163, September 2012. Harvest.

  115. A 21 nV/√ Hz chopper-stabilized multi-path current-feedback instrumentation amplifier with 2 μ v offset
    Q. Fan; J.H. Huijsing; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits,
    Volume 47, Issue 2, pp. 464-475, February 2012. Harvest Article number: 6112184.

  116. An SOI thermal-diffusivity-based temperature sensor with ±0.6 °C (3σ) untrimmed inaccuracy from -70 °C to 225 °C
    C.P.L. van Vroonhoven; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    Sensors and Actuators A: Physical: an international journal devoted to research and development of physical and chemical transducers,
    Volume 188, pp. 66-74, 2012. harvest.

  117. A scaled thermal-diffusivity-based 16 MHz frequency reference in 0.16 μm CMOS
    S.M. Kashmiri; K. Souri; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits,
    Volume 47, Issue 7, pp. 1535-1545, July 2012. Harvest Article number: 6216450.

  118. HermesE: A 96-channel full data rate direct neural interface in 0.13 μm CMOS
    H. Gao; R.M. Walker; P. Nuyujukian; K.A.A. Makinwa; K.V. Shenoy; B. Murmann; T.H.Y. Meng;
    IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits,
    Volume 47, Issue 4, pp. 1043-1055, April 2012. Harvest Article number: 6158616.

  119. A capacitance-to-digital converter for displacement sensing with 17b resolution and 20μs conversion time
    S. Xia; K.A.A. Makinwa; S. Nihtianov;
    In L Fujino (Ed.), Proc. of the IEEE international solid-state circuits conference digest of technical papers,
    IEEE, pp. 198-199, 2012. Harvest Article number: 6176973.

  120. Measurement and analysis of input current noise in chopper amplifiers
    J. Xu; Q. Fan; J.H. Huijsing; C. van Hoof; R.F. Yazicioglu; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In Y. Deval; J-B Begueret; D Belot (Ed.), Proceedings 2012 38th European Solid-State Circuit Conference,
    IEEE, pp. 81-84, 2012.

  121. Below-IC post-CMOS integration of thick MEMS on a thin-SOI platform using embedded interconnects
    V. Rajaraman; J.J. Koning; E. Ooms; G. Pandraud; K.A.A. Makinwa; H. Boezen;
    In L Buchaillot; H Zappe (Ed.), Proceedings 2012 IEEE 25th International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems,
    IEEE, pp. 220-223, 2012. harvest Article number: 6170130.

  122. A ±0.4°C (3σ) -70 to 200°C time-domain temperature sensor based on heat diffusion in Si and SiO2
    C.P.L. van Vroonhoven; D. d'Aquino; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In L Fujino (Ed.), Digest of Technical Papers - 2012 IEEE International Solid-state Circuits Conference,
    IEEE, pp. 204-206, February 2012. Harvest Article number: 6176976.

  123. A capacitively coupled chopper instrumentation amplifier with a ±30V common-mode range, 160dB CMRR and 5μV offset
    Q. Fan; J.H. Huijsing; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In L Fujino (Ed.), Digest of Technical Papers - 2012 IEEE International Solid-state Circuits Conference,
    IEEE, pp. 374-375, 2012. Harvest Article number: 6177045.

  124. A 20bit continuous-time ΣΔ modulator with a Gm-C integrator, 120dB CMRR and 15 ppm INL
    G. Singh; R. Wu; Y. Chae; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In Y. Deval; J-B Begueret; D Belot (Ed.), Proceedings 2012 38th European Solid-State Circuit Conference,
    IEEE, pp. 385-388, 2012.

  125. A capacitively-coupled chopper operational amplifier with 3μV Offset and outside-the-rail capability
    Q. Fan; J.H. Huijsing; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In Y. Deval; J-B Begueret; D Belot (Ed.), Proceedings 2012 38th European Solid-State Circuit Conference,
    IEEE, pp. 73-76, 2012.

  126. A 700μW 8-channel EEG/contact-impedance acquisition system for dry-electrodes
    S. Mitra; J. Xu; A. Matsumoto; K.A.A. Makinwa; A. van Hoof; R.F. Yazicioglu;
    In A Amerasekera; M Nagata (Ed.), Dig. Techn. Paper IEEE Symposium on VLSI Circuits (VLSI),
    IEEE, pp. 68-69, 2012. Harvest.

  127. A CMOS temperature sensor with a voltage-calibrated inaccuracy of ±0.15°C (3σ) from -55 to 125°C
    K. Souri; Y. Chae; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In L Fujino (Ed.), Digest of Technical Papers - 2012 IEEE International Solid-state Circuits Conference,
    IEEE, pp. 208-210, February 2012. Harvest Article number: 6176978.

  128. Current-feedback instrumentation amplifiers
    J.H. Huijsing, R. Wu; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    Patent, US 8,179,195, May 2012.

  129. A single-trim CMOS bandgap reference with a 3σ inaccuracy of ±0.15% from -40°C to 125°C
    G. Ge; C. Zhang; G. Hoogzaad; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits,
    Volume 46, Issue 11, pp. 2693-2701, November 2011.

  130. A 0.12 mm2 7.4 μ W micropower temperature sensor with an inaccuracy of ±0.2°C (3σ) from -30°C to 125°C
    K. Souri; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits,
    Volume 46, Issue 7, pp. 1693-1700, July 2011.

  131. A 4 GHz continuous-time ΔΣ ADC with 70 dB DR and -74 dBFS THD in 125 MHz BW
    M. Bolatkale; L.J. Breems; R. Rutten; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits,
    Volume 46, Issue 12, pp. 2857-2868, December 2011.

  132. A current-feedback instrumentation amplifier with a gain error reduction loop and 0.06% untrimmed gain error
    R. Wu; J.H. Huijsing; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits,
    Volume 46, Issue 12, pp. 2794-2806, December 2011. NEO.

  133. A 160 μw 8-channel active electrode system for EEG monitoring
    J. Xu; R.F. Yazicioglu; B. Grundlehner; P. Harpe; K.A.A. Makinwa; C. van Hoof;
    IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems,
    Volume 5, Issue 6, pp. 555-567, December 2011.

  134. A 65-nm CMOS temperature-compensated mobility-based frequency reference for Wireless Sensor Networks
    Fabio Sebastiano; Lucien J. Breems; Kofi Makinwa; Salvatore Drago; Domine M. W. Leenaerts; Bram Nauta;
    {IEEE} J. Solid-State Circuits,
    Volume 46, Issue 7, pp. 1544 - 1552, July 2011. DOI: 10.1109/JSSC.2011.2143630
    Keywords: CMOS integrated circuits;compensation;electron mobility;wireless sensor networks;MOS transistor;current 42.6 muA;electron mobility;mobility-based frequency reference;size 65 nm;temperature -55 degC to 125 degC;temperature-compensated CMOS frequency reference;two-point trim;voltage 1.2 V;wireless sensor networks;Accuracy;Frequency conversion;Oscillators;Temperature;Temperature measurement;Temperature sensors;Wireless sensor networks;CMOS integrated circuits;Charge carrier mobility;MOSFET;crystal-less clock;frequency reference;low voltage;sigma-delta modulation;smart sensors;temperature compensation;temperature sensors;ultra-low power;wireless sensor networks.
    Abstract: ...
    A temperature-compensated CMOS frequency reference based on the electron mobility in a MOS transistor is presented. Over the temperature range from -55 °C to 125 °C, the frequency spread of the complete reference is less than ±0.5% after a two-point trim and less than ±2.7% after a one-point trim. These results make it suitable for use in Wireless Sensor Network nodes. Fabricated in a baseline 65-nm CMOS process, the 150 kHz frequency reference occupies 0.2 mm² and draws 42.6 µA from a 1.2-V supply at room temperature.

  135. A 1.8 µW 60 nV/√Hz Capacitively-Coupled Chopper Instrumentation Amplifier in 65 nm CMOS for Wireless Sensor Nodes
    Qinwen Fan; Fabio Sebastiano; Johan H. Huijsing; Kofi A.A. Makinwa;
    {IEEE} J. Solid-State Circuits,
    Volume 46, Issue 7, pp. 1534 - 1543, July 2011. DOI: 10.1109/JSSC.2011.2143610
    Keywords: CMOS integrated circuits;choppers (circuits);instrumentation amplifiers;wireless sensor networks;CMOS technology;CMRR;DC servo loop;PSRR;biopotential sensing;capacitively-coupled chopper instrumentation amplifier;chopping ripple;current 1.8 muA;electrode offset suppression;low-power precision instrumentation amplifier;noise efficiency factor;positive feedback loop;power 1.8 muW;rail-to-rail input common-mode range;ripple reduction loop;size 65 nm;voltage 1 V;wireless sensor nodes;Capacitors;Choppers;Impedance;Noise;Sensors;Topology;Wireless sensor networks;Bio-signal sensing;chopping;high power efficiency;low offset;low power;precision amplifier;wireless sensor nodes.
    Abstract: ...
    This paper presents a low-power precision instrumentation amplifier intended for use in wireless sensor nodes. It employs a capacitively-coupled chopper topology to achieve a rail-to-rail input common-mode range as well as high power efficiency. A positive feedback loop is employed to boost its input impedance, while a ripple reduction loop suppresses the chopping ripple. To facilitate bio-potential sensing, an optional DC servo loop may be employed to suppress electrode offset. The IA achieves 1 µV offset, 0.16% gain inaccuracy, 134 dB CMRR, 120 dB PSRR and a noise efficiency factor of 3.3. The instrumentation amplifier was implemented in a 65 nm CMOS technology. It occupies only 0.1 mm² chip area (0.2 mm² with the DC servo loop) and consumes 1.8 µA current (2.1 µA with the DC servo loop) from a 1 V supply.

  136. A Single-Temperature Trimming Technique for MOS-Input Operational Amplifiers Achieving 0.33μV/°C Offset Drift
    M. Bolatkale; M. A. P. Pertijs; W. J. Kindt; J. H. Huijsing; K. A. A. Makinwa;
    IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits,
    Volume 46, Issue 9, pp. 2099‒2107, September 2011. DOI: 10.1109/JSSC.2011.2139530
    Abstract: ...
    A MOS-input operational amplifier has a reconfigurable input stage that enables trimming of both offset and offset drift based only on single-temperature measurements. The input stage consists of a MOS differential pair, whose offset drift is predicted from offset voltage measurements made at well-defined bias currents. A theoretical motivation for this approach is presented and validated experimentally by characterizing the offset of pairs of discrete MOS transistors as a function of bias current and temperature. An opamp using the proposed single-temperature trimming technique has been designed and fabricated in a 0.5 μm BiCMOS process. After single-temperature trimming, it achieves a maximum offset of ± 30 μV and an offset drift of 0.33 μV/°C (3σ) over the temperature range of -40°C to +125°C.

  137. A 21-bit Read-Out IC Employing Dynamic Element Matching with 0.037% Gain Error
    R. Wu; J.H. Huijsing; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In K-N Kim; S-I Liu (Ed.), 2011 IEEE Asian Solid-State Circuits Conference,
    IEEE, pp. 241-244, 2011.

  138. A Continuous-Time Sigma-Delta Modulator with a Gm-C Input Stage,120-dB CMRR and -87 dB THD
    Navid Sarhangnejad; R. Wu; Y. Chae; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In K-N Kim; S-I Liu (Ed.), 2011 IEEE Asian Solid-State Circuits Conference (A-SSCC),
    IEEE, pp. 245-248, 2011.

  139. Ramp Calibration of Temperature Sensors
    K. Souri; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In {De Venuto}, D; {L. Benini} (Ed.), 2011 IEEE 4th International Workshop on Advances in Sensors and Interfaces (IWASI),
    IEEE, pp. 67-70, 2011.

  140. A 36V Voltage-to-Current Converter with Dynamic Element Matching and Auto-Calibration for AC Ripple Reduction
    S. Bajoria; M.F. Snoeij; V. Schaffer; M.V. Ivanov; S. Wang; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In H Tenhunen; M Aberg (Ed.), 2011 IEEE 37th European Solid-State Circuits Conference,
    IEEE, pp. 319-322, 2011.

  141. Introduction to the Special Issue on the 2010 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference
    K. Arimoto; K. Takeuchi; T. Karnik; K.A.A. Makinwa; A. Burdett;
    In {Makinwa et al}, KAA (Ed.), Special Issue on the 2010 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference,
    IEEE, pp. 3-7, 2011. Inleiding ter introductie special issue.

  142. A GMR Spin-Valve Integrated into a Continuous Time Sigma-Delta Modulator for Quantitative, Real-Time Biosensing
    D.A. Hall; C. Chu; A. Dotey; R.S. Gaster; K.A.A. Makinwa; B. Murmann; S.X. Wang;
    In B Terris; C-R Chang; M-J Tung; B Liu; K Liu (Ed.), IEEE International Magnetics Conference (INTERMAG),
    IEEE, pp. -, 2011.

  143. Thermal Diffusivity Sensing: A New Temperature Sensing Paradigm
    C.P.L. van Vroonhoven; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In R Patel; T Andre; A Khan (Ed.), 2011 IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference,
    IEEE, pp. 1-6, 2011.

  144. A novel soi-mems "micro-swing" time-accelerometer operating in two time-based transduction modes for high sensitivity and extended range
    V. Rajaraman; B.S. Hau; L.A. Rocha; R.A. Dias; K.A.A. Makinwa; R. Dekker;
    In M. Bao; L-S Fan (Ed.), 16th International Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Conference (TRANSDUCERS 2011),
    IEEE, pp. 2066-2069, 2011.

  145. A 96-channel full data rate direct neural interface in 0.13um CMOS
    R.M. Walker; H. Gao; P. Nuyujukian; K.A.A. Makinwa; K.V. Shenoy; T. Meng; B. Murmann;
    In Dig. Techn. Paper IEEE Symposium on VLSI Circuits (VLSI),
    IEEE, pp. 144‒145, June 2011.

  146. A 160μW 8-channel active electrode system for EEG monitoring
    J. Xu; R.F. Yazicioglu; P. Harpe; K.A.A. Makinwa; C. van Hoof;
    In A Chandrakasan; {Gass et al}, W (Ed.), Digest of Technical Papers - 2011 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference,
    IEEE, pp. 300-302, February 2011. NEO.

  147. A precision DTMOST-based temperature sensor
    K. Souri; Y. Chae; Y. Ponomarev; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In H Schmidt; C Papavassiliou (Ed.), Proceedings 2011 European Solid-State Circuits Conference,
    IEEE, pp. 279-282, 2011.

  148. A 256 Channel Magnetoresistive Biosensor Microarray for Quantitative Proteomics
    D.A. Hall; R.S. Gaster; S.J. Osterfeld; K.A.A. Makinwa; S.X. Wang; B. Murmann;
    In Dig. Techn. Paper IEEE Symposium on VLSI Circuits (VLSI),
    IEEE, pp. 174‒175, June 2011.

  149. A 25mW Smart CMOS Sensor for Wind and Temperature Measurement
    J. Wu; C.P.L. van Vroonhoven; Y. Chae; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In E Lewis; T Kenny (Ed.), Proceedings IEEE Sensors 2011,
    IEEE, pp. 1261-1264, 2011.

  150. A current-feedback instrumentation amplifier with a gain error reduction loop and 0.06% untrimmed gain error
    R. Wu; J.H. Huijsing; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In A Chandrakasan; {Gass et al}, W (Ed.), Digest of Technical Papers - 2011 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference,
    IEEE, pp. 244-246, February 2011.

  151. A 4GHz CT Delta-Sigma ADC with 70dB DR and -74dBFS THD in 125MHz BW
    M. Bolatkale; L.J. Breems; R. Rutten; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In A Chandrakasana; W Gass (Ed.), 2011 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC),
    IEEE, pp. 470-472, 2011.

  152. A 21b ±40mV range read-out IC for bridge transducers
    R. Wu; J.H. Huijsing; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In A Chandrakasan; {Gass et al}, W (Ed.), Digest of Technical Papers - 2011 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference,
    IEEE, pp. 110-111, February 2011. NEO.

  153. Input characteristics of a chopped multi-path current feedback instrumentation amplifier
    Q. Fan; J.H. Huijsing; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In {De Venuto}, D; L Benini (Ed.), 4th IEEE International Workshop on Advances in Sensors and Interfaces (IWASI),
    IEEE, pp. 61-66, 2011.

  154. An SOI thermal-diffusivity-based temperature sensor with ±0.6°C (3σ) untrimmed inaccuracy from -70°C to 170°C
    C.P.L. van Vroonhoven; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In S. Xia; M. Bao; L-S Fan (Ed.), 16th International Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Conference (TRANSDUCERS 2011),
    IEEE, pp. 2887-2890, 2011.

  155. A 50mW CMOS wind sensor with ±4% speed and ±2° direction error
    J. Wu; Y. Chae; C.P.L. van Vroonhoven; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In A Chandrakasan; {Gass et al}, W (Ed.), Digest of Technical Papers - 2011 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference,
    IEEE, pp. 106-108, February 2011.

  156. A scaled thermal-diffusivity-based frequency reference in 0.16 um CMOS
    S.M. Kashmiri; K. Souri; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In H Tenhunen; M Aberg (Ed.), 37th European Soldi-State Circuits Conference 2011, (ESSCIRC),
    IEEE, pp. 503-506, 2011.

  157. Phase readout of thermal conductivity-based gas sensors
    C.P.L. van Vroonhoven; G. de Graaf; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In {De Venuto}, D; L Benini (Ed.), 4th IEEE International Workshop on Advances in Sensors and Interfaces (IWASI),
    IEEE, pp. 199-202, 2011.

  158. Effects of Packaging and Process Spread on a Mobility-Based Frequency Reference in 0.16-µm CMOS
    Fabio Sebastiano; Lucien J. Breems; Kofi Makinwa; Salvatore Drago; Domine M. W. Leenaerts; Bram Nauta;
    In Proc. European Solid-State Circuits Conference,
    Helsinki, Finland, pp. 511 - 514, September12-16 2011. DOI: 10.1109/ESSCIRC.2011.6044934
    Keywords: CMOS integrated circuits;MOSFET;ceramic packaging;electron mobility;low-power electronics;plastic packaging;reference circuits;wireless sensor networks;CMOS process;ceramic packages;electron mobility;frequency 50 kHz;low-voltage low-power circuit;mobility-based frequency reference;off-chip components;packaging;plastic packages;process spread;size 0.16 mum;temperature -55 degC to 125 degC;temperature 293 K to 298 K;thick-oxide MOS transistors;thin-oxide MOS transistors;voltage 1.2 V;wireless sensor networks;Accuracy;Ceramics;Oscillators;Plastics;Temperature distribution;Temperature measurement;Transistors.
    Abstract: ...
    In this paper, we explore the robustness of frequency references based on the electron mobility in a MOS transistor by implementing them with both thin-oxide and thick-oxide MOS transistors in a 0.16-µm CMOS process, and by testing samples packaged in both ceramic and plastic packages. The proposed low-voltage low-power circuit requires no off-chip components, making it suitable for applications requiring fully integrated solutions, such as Wireless Sensor Networks. Over the temperature range from -55 °C to 125 °C, its frequency spread is less than ±1% (3σ) after a one-point trim. Fabricated in a baseline 0.16-µm CMOS process, the 50 kHz frequency reference occupies 0.06 mm² and, at room temperature, its consumption with a 1.2-V supply is less than 17 µW.

  159. A ping-pong-pang current-feedback instrumentation amplifier with 0.04\% gain error
    S. Sakunia; F. Witte; M. Pertijs; K. Makinwa;
    In Dig. Techn. Paper IEEE Symposium on VLSI Circuits (VLSI),
    IEEE, pp. 60‒61, June 2011.
    Abstract: ...
    A ping-pong-pang auto-zeroed and chopped current-feedback instrumentation amplifier (CFIA) uses three dynamically-matched input stages to achieve 0.04\% gain error, a 2.5× improvement over prior art. Its 4 μV offset and 28 nV/√Hz noise are achieved at 3.5× less supply current than a comparable ping-pong auto-zeroed CFIA.

    document

  160. Synchronous phase detection circuit
    C.P.L. van Vroonhoven; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    Patent, US 8,013,636, September 2011.

  161. Oscillator based on thermal diffusion
    J.F. Witte; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    Patent, US 7,920,032, May 2011.

  162. Introduction to the Special Issue on the 2010 International Solid-State Circuits Conference
    K. Arimoto; K. Takeuchi; K.A.A. Makinwa; A. Burdett,;
    IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits,
    Volume 46, Issue 1, pp. 3-7, 2010.

  163. Design, fabrication and characterization of a femto-farad capacitive sensor for pico-liter liquid monitoring
    J. Wei; C. Yue; M. van der Velden; T. Chen; Z.W. Liu; K.A.A. Makinwa; P.M. Sarro;
    Sensors and Actuators A: Physical: an international journal devoted to research and development of physical and chemical transducers,
    Volume 162, Issue 2, pp. 406-417, 2010.

  164. Design and modeling of a flexible contact mode piezoresistive detector for a time based acceleration sensing
    V. Rajaraman; Hau Bou sing; L.A. Rocha; P.J. French; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    Procedia Engineering,
    Volume 5, pp. 1063-1066, 2010.

  165. Introduction to the special issue on the 35th ESSCIRC
    Y. Deval; K.A.A. Makinwa; S. Rusu;
    IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits,
    Volume 45, Issue 7, pp. 1270-1272, 2010.

  166. A 200 µA Duty-Cycled PLL for Wireless Sensor Nodes in 65 nm CMOS
    Salvatore Drago; Domine M.W. Leenaerts; Bram Nauta; Fabio Sebastiano; Kofi A.A. Makinwa; Lucien J. Breems;
    {IEEE} J. Solid-State Circuits,
    Volume 45, Issue 7, pp. 1305 - 1315, July 2010. DOI: 10.1109/JSSC.2010.2049458
    Keywords: CMOS integrated circuits;UHF integrated circuits;frequency synthesizers;low-power electronics;phase locked loops;wireless sensor networks;CMOS technology;DCPLL circuit;current 200 muA;duty-cycled PLL;frequency 300 MHz to 1.2 GHz;frequency error;low-power high-frequency synthesizer;size 65 nm;voltage 1.3 V;wireless sensor networks;wireless sensor nodes;Batteries;CMOS technology;Energy consumption;Frequency synthesizers;Integrated circuit technology;Jitter;Oscillators;Phase locked loops;Phase noise;Wireless sensor networks;CMOS;PLL;WSN;duty-cycle;frequency stability;frequency synthesizer;fully integrated;ultra-low-power;wireless sensor networks.
    Abstract: ...
    The design of a duty-cycled PLL (DCPLL) capable of burst mode operation is presented. The proposed DCPLL is a moderately accurate low-power high-frequency synthesizer suitable for use in nodes for wireless sensor networks (WSN). Thanks to a dual loop configuration, the PLL's total frequency error, once in lock, is less than 0.25% from 300 MHz to 1.2 GHz. It employs a fast start-up DCO which enables its operation at duty-cycles as low as 10%. Fabricated in a baseline 65 nm CMOS technology, the DCPLL circuit occupies 0.19 x 0.15 mm² and draws 200 µA from a 1.3 V supply when generating bursts of 1 GHz signal with a 10% duty-cycle.

  167. A 1.2-V 10-µW NPN-Based Temperature Sensor in 65-nm CMOS With an Inaccuracy of 0.2 °C (3σ) From -70 °C to 125 °C
    Fabio Sebastiano; Lucien J. Breems; Kofi Makinwa; Salvatore Drago; Domine M. W. Leenaerts; Bram Nauta;
    {IEEE} J. Solid-State Circuits,
    Volume 45, Issue 12, pp. 2591 - 2601, December 2010. DOI: 10.1109/JSSC.2010.2076610
    Keywords: CMOS integrated circuits;correlation methods;signal sampling;temperature sensors;CMOS;correlated double sampling;dynamic element matching;npn transistor;power 10 muW;size 65 nm;temperature -70 C to 125 C;temperature sensor;voltage 1.2 V;CMOS analog integrated circuits;CMOS process;Intelligent sensors;Sigma delta modulation;Temperature sensors;CMOS analog integrated circuits;sigma-delta modulation;smart sensors;temperature sensors.
    Abstract: ...
    An NPN-based temperature sensor with digital output has been realized in a 65-nm CMOS process. It achieves a batch-calibrated inaccuracy of (3σ) and a trimmed inaccuracy of (3σ) over the temperature range from -70 °C to 125 °C. This performance is obtained by the use of NPN transistors as sensing elements, the use of dynamic techniques, i.e., correlated double sampling and dynamic element matching, and a single room-temperature trim. The sensor draws 8.3 µA from a 1.2-V supply and occupies an area of 0.1 mm².

  168. A Thermal-Diffusivity-Based Frequency Reference in Standard CMOS With an Absolute Inaccuracy of ±0.1\% From -55°C to 125°C
    S. M. Kashmiri; M. A. P. Pertijs; K. A. A. Makinwa;
    IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits,
    Volume 45, Issue 12, pp. 2510‒2520, December 2010. DOI: 10.1109/JSSC.2010.2076343
    Abstract: ...
    An on-chip frequency reference exploiting the well-defined thermal-diffusivity (TD) of IC-grade silicon has been realized in a standard 0.7 μm CMOS process. A frequency-locked loop (FLL) locks the frequency of a digitally controlled oscillator (DCO) to the process-insensitive phase shift of an electrothermal filter (ETF). The ETF's phase shift is determined by its geometry and by the thermal diffusivity of bulk silicon (D). The temperature dependence of is compensated for with the help of die-temperature information obtained by an on-chip band-gap temperature sensor. The resulting TD frequency reference has a nominal output frequency of 1.6 MHz and dissipates 7.8 mW from a 5 V supply. Measurements on 16 devices show that it has an absolute inaccuracy of ±0.1\% (σ = ±0.05\%) over the military temperature range (-55°C to 125°C ), with a worst case temperature coefficient of ± 11.2 ppm/°C.

  169. Low-cost calibration techniques for smart temperature sensors
    M. A. P. Pertijs; A. L. Aita; K. A. A. Makinwa; J. H. Huijsing;
    IEEE Sensors Journal,
    Volume 10, Issue 6, pp. 1098‒1105, June 2010. DOI: 10.1109/jsen.2010.2040730
    Abstract: ...
    Smart temperature sensors generally need to be trimmed to obtain measurement errors below ±2°C. The associated temperature calibration procedure is time consuming and therefore costly. This paper presents two, much faster, voltage calibration techniques. Both make use of the fact that a voltage proportional to absolute temperature (PTAT) can be accurately generated on chip. By measuring this voltage, the sensor's actual temperature can be determined, whereupon the sensor can be trimmed to correct for its dominant source of error: spread in the on-chip voltage reference. The first calibration technique consists of measuring the (small) PTAT voltage directly, while the second, more robust alternative does so indirectly, by using an external reference voltage and the on-chip ADC. Experimental results from a prototype fabricated in 0.7 μm CMOS technology show that after calibration and trimming, these two techniques result in measurement errors (±3σ) of ±0.15°C and ±0.25°C, respectively, in a range from -55°C to 125°C.

  170. 12-bit accurate voltage-sensing ADC with curvature-corrected dynamic reference
    N. Saputra; M. A. P. Pertijs; K. A. A. Makinwa; J. H. Huijsing;
    Electronics Letters,
    Volume 46, Issue 6, pp. 397‒398, March 2010. DOI: 10.1049/el.2010.3337
    Abstract: ...
    A sigma-delta analogue-to-digital converter (ADC) with a dynamic voltage reference is presented that achieves 12-bit absolute accuracy over the extended industrial temperature range (-40 to 105°C). Temperature-dependent gain errors due to the reference's curvature are digitally corrected by adjusting the gain of the ADC's decimation filter. The required correction factor is obtained by first using the reference to make a temperature measurement, and then translating the result into a correction factor by means of a lookup table and a linear interpolator. Thus, a dynamic voltage reference is realised with a measured temperature drift of less than 1.7 ppm/°C. The ADC was fabricated in 0.7 μm CMOS technology and consumes 85 μA from a 2.5-5.5 V supply.

  171. Silicon carbide thin film encapsulation of planar thermo- electric infrared detectors for an IR microspectrometer
    V. Rajaraman; G. de Graaf; P.J. French; K.A.A. Makinwa; R.F. Wolffenbuttel;
    {van Honschoten}, J; H Verputten; H Groenland (Ed.);
    MME, , pp. 20-23, 2010.

  172. Smart temperature sensors in standard CMOS
    K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In s.n (Ed.), Proceedings of Eurosensors XXIV,
    Elsevier, pp. 930-939, 2010.

  173. A thermal-diffusivity-based temperature sensor with an untrimmed inaccuracy of 0.2degess C (3 sigma) from -55 to 125 degrees C.
    C.P.L. van Vroonhoven; D. d'Aquino; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In s.n. (Ed.), Digest of ISSCC,
    ISSCC, pp. 314-315, 2010.

  174. A single-trim CMOS bandgap reference with a 3-sigma inaccuracy of ±0.15% from ¿40°C to 125°C
    G. Ge; Ch Zhang; G. Hoogzaad; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In LC Fujino (Ed.), 2010 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference; Digest of technical papers (ISSCC) 2010,
    IEEE, pp. 78-79, 2010.

  175. A 0.12mm² 7.4µW micropower temperature sensor with an inaccuracy of 0.2°C(3-sigma) from -30°C to 125°C
    K. Souri; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In {Guerra-Vinuesa et al}, O (Ed.), Unknown,
    ESSCIRC/ESSDERC, pp. 282-285, 2010.

  176. A 21nV/¿Hz chopper-stabilized multipath current-feedback instrumentation amplifier with 2µV offset
    Q. Fan; J.H. Huijsing; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In H Hidaka; B. Nauta (Ed.), Digest of Technical Papers - 2010 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference,
    IEEE, pp. 80-81, 2010.

  177. Design and modeling of a flexible contact mode piezoresistive detector for time based acceleration sensing
    V. Rajaraman; Hau Bou sing; Luis Rocha; P.J. French; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In B Jakoby; M.J. Vellekoop (Ed.), Eurosensors XXIV,
    Elsevier, pp. 1063-1066, 2010.

  178. A CMOS temperature sensor with an energy-efficient zoom ADC and an inaccuracy of ±0.25°C (3¿) from -40°C to 125°C
    K. Souri; S.M. Kashmiri; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In 2010 IEEE International solid-state circuits conference; Digest of technical papers (ISSCC) 2010,
    IEEE, pp. 310-311, 2010.

  179. A temperature sensor in 0.18 micrometer CMOS with 62 microwatt power consumption and a range of -120..120 degree C.
    J.H.R. Schrader; A. Stellinga; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In {Bedi et al}, R (Ed.), Proceedings International workshop on Analog and Mixed signal Integrated Circuits for Space Applications (AMICSA 2010),
    ESA, pp. 1-20, 2010.

  180. A 1.2V 10µW NPN-based temperature sensor in 65nm CMOS with an inaccuracy of ±0.2°C (3σ) from -70°C to 125°C
    Fabio Sebastiano; Lucien J. Breems; Kofi Makinwa; Salvatore Drago; Domine M. W. Leenaerts; Bram Nauta;
    In International Solid-state Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers,
    San Francisco, CA, pp. 312 - 313, February7--11 2010. DOI: 10.1109/ISSCC.2010.5433895
    Keywords: CMOS integrated circuits;signal processing equipment;temperature sensors;CMOS technology;batch calibrated inaccuracy;current 8.3 A;power 10 W;size 65 nm;temperature -70 C to 125 C;temperature sensor;voltage 1.2 V;CMOS technology;Pipelines;Robustness;Sampling methods;Switches;Tail;Temperature sensors;Testing;Timing;Voltage.
    Abstract: ...
    A temperature sensor utilizing NPN transistors has been realized in a 65 nm CMOS process. It achieves a batch-calibrated inaccuracy of ±0.5°C (3σ) and a trimmed inaccuracy of ±0.2°C (3σ) from -70°C to 125°C The sensor draws 8.3 µA from a 1.2 V supply and occupies an area of 0.1 mm².

  181. A 2.4GHz 830pJ/bit duty-cycled wake-up receiver with -82dBm sensitivity for crystal-less wireless sensor nodes
    Salvatore Drago; Domine M.W. Leenaerts; Fabio Sebastiano; and Lucien J. Breems; Kofi A.A. Makinwa; Bram Nauta;
    In International Solid-state Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers,
    San Francisco, CA, pp. 224 - 225, February7--11 2010. DOI: 10.1109/ISSCC.2010.5433955
    Keywords: CMOS integrated circuits;UHF integrated circuits;field effect MMIC;radio receivers;ultra wideband communication;wireless sensor networks;CMOS wake up receiver;bit rate 500 kbit/s;broadband IF heterodyne architecture;crystal less wireless sensor nodes;frequency 2.4 GHz;impulse radio modulation;non coherent energy detection;power 415 muW;size 65 nm;Baseband;Bit error rate;Clocks;Filters;Gain measurement;Pulse amplifiers;Radio frequency;Radiofrequency amplifiers;Voltage;Wireless sensor networks.
    Abstract: ...
    A 65 nm CMOS 2.4 GHz wake-up receiver operating with low-accuracy frequency references has been realized. Robustness to frequency inaccuracy is achieved by employing non-coherent energy detection, broadband-IF heterodyne architecture and impulse-radio modulation. The radio dissipates 415 µW at 500 kb/s and achieves a sensitivity of -82 dBm with an energy efficiency of 830 pJ/bit.

  182. A 65-nm CMOS temperature-compensated mobility-based frequency reference for Wireless Sensor Networks
    Fabio Sebastiano; Lucien J. Breems; Kofi Makinwa; Salvatore Drago; Domine M. W. Leenaerts; Bram Nauta;
    In Proc. European Solid-State Circuits Conference,
    Sevilla, Spain, pp. 102 - 105, September14--16 2010. DOI: 10.1109/ESSCIRC.2010.5619792
    Keywords: CMOS integrated circuits;MOSFET;electron mobility;wireless sensor networks;CMOS temperature-compensated mobility;MOS transistor;current 42.6 muA;electron mobility;frequency 150 kHz;frequency reference;size 65 nm;temperature -55 C to 125 C;voltage 1.2 V;wireless sensor network;Accuracy;CMOS integrated circuits;Calibration;Oscillators;Temperature measurement;Temperature sensors;Wireless sensor networks.
    Abstract: ...
    For the first time, a temperature-compensated CMOS frequency reference based on the electron mobility in a MOS transistor is presented. Over the temperature range from -55 °C to 125 °C, its frequency spread is less than ±0.5% after a two-point trim and less than ±2.7% after a one-point trim. These results make it suitable for use in Wireless Sensor Network nodes. Fabricated in a baseline 65-nm CMOS process, the 150 kHz frequency reference occupies 0.2 mm² and draws 42.6 µA from a 1.2-V supply at room temperature.

  183. A 1.8µW 1-µV-offset capacitively-coupled chopper instrumentation amplifier in 65nm CMOS
    Qinwen Fan; Fabio Sebastiano; Johan H. Huijsing; Kofi A.A. Makinwa;
    In Proc. European Solid-State Circuits Conference,
    Sevilla, Spain, pp. 170 - 173, September14--16 2010. DOI: 10.1109/ESSCIRC.2010.5619902
    Keywords: CMOS integrated circuits;instrumentation amplifiers;CMOS;input impedance;noise efficiency factor;positive feedback loop;precision capacitively-coupled chopper instrumentation amplifier;rail-to-rail DC common-mode input range;ripple reduction loop;size 65 nm;Accuracy;Choppers;Impedance;Instruments;Noise;Resistors;Topology.
    Abstract: ...
    This paper describes a precision capacitively-coupled chopper instrumentation amplifier (CCIA). It achieves 1µV offset, 134dB CMRR, 120dB PSRR, 0.16% gain accuracy and a noise efficiency factor (NEF) of 3.1, which is more than 3x better than state-of-the-art. It has a rail-to-rail DC common-mode (CM) input range. Furthermore, a positive feedback loop (PFL) is used to boost the input impedance, and a ripple reduction loop (RRL) is used to reduce the ripple associated with chopping. The CCIA occupies only 0.1mm² in a 65nm CMOS technology. It can operate from a 1V supply, from which it draws only 1.8µA.

  184. A 2.1 µW Area-Efficient Capacitively-Coupled Chopper Instrumentation Amplifier for ECG Applications in 65 nm CMOS
    Qinwen Fan; Fabio Sebastiano; Johan H. Huijsing; Kofi A.A. Makinwa;
    In Proc. Asian Solid-State Circuits Conference,
    Beijing, China, pp. 1 - 4, November8--10 2010. DOI: 10.1109/ASSCC.2010.5716624
    Keywords: CMOS integrated circuits;amplifiers;biomedical electrodes;choppers (circuits);electrocardiography;CMOS technology;DC servo loop;ECG application;area efficient chopper instrumentation amplifier;capacitive feedback network;capacitively coupled chopper instrumentation amplifier;electrocardiography;electrode-tissue interface;power 2.1 muW;switched capacitor integrator;Choppers;DSL;Earth Observing System;Electrocardiography;Impedance;Instruments;Noise.
    Abstract: ...
    This paper describes a capacitively-coupled chopper instrumentation amplifier for use in electrocardiography (ECG). The amplifier's gain is accurately defined by a capacitive feedback network, while a DC servo loop rejects the DC offset generated by the electrode-tissue interface. The high-pass corner frequency established by the servo loop is realized by an area-efficient switched-capacitor integrator. Additional feedback loops are employed to boost the amplifier's input-impedance to 80 MΩ and to suppress the chopper ripple. Implemented in a 65 nm CMOS technology, the amplifier draws 2.1 µA from a 1 V supply and occupies 0.2 mm².

  185. A Thermal-diffusivity-based Frequency Reference in Standard CMOS with an Absolute Inaccuracy of ±0.1\% from -55°C to 125°C
    M. Kashmiri; M. Pertijs; K. Makinwa;
    In Dig. Techn. Papers IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC),
    IEEE, pp. 74‒75, February 2010. DOI: 10.1109/ISSCC.2010.5434042
    Abstract: ...
    Most electronic systems require a frequency reference, and so, much research has been devoted to the realization of on-chip frequency references in standard CMOS. However, the accuracy of such references is limited by the process spread and temperature drift of on-chip components. By means of trimming and temperature compensation, RC and ring oscillators have achieved inaccuracies in the order of 1\%. LC oscillators achieve inaccuracies below 0.1\%, but dissipate much more power. This paper describes a new approach, which exploits the well-defined thermal diffusivity of IC-grade silicon in order to generate frequencies stable to 0.1\% over process and temperature variations. Such thermal diffusivity (TD) frequency references dissipate less power than LC oscillators, are more accurate than RC and ring oscillators and, uniquely, scale well with process.

  186. A temperature-to-digital converter based on an optimized electrothermal filter
    S.M. Kashmiri; S. Xia; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits,
    Volume 44, Issue 7, pp. 2026-2035, 2009.

  187. A chopper current-feedback instrumentation amplifier with a 1mHz 1/f noise corner and an AC-coupled ripple reduction loop
    R. Wu; K.A.A. Makinwa; J.H. Huijsing;
    IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits,
    Volume 44, pp. 3232-3243, 2009.

  188. Impulse-Based Scheme for Crystal-Less ULP Radios
    Salvatore Drago; Fabio Sebastiano; Lucien J. Breems; Domine M.W. Leenaerts; Kofi A.A. Makinwa; Bram Nauta;
    {IEEE} Trans. Circuits Syst. {I},
    Volume 56, Issue 5, pp. 1041 - 1052, May 2009. DOI: 10.1109/TCSI.2009.2015208
    Keywords: access protocols;ad hoc networks;clocks;low-power electronics;modulation;ultra wideband communication;wireless sensor networks;ad hoc modulation;crystal-less ULP radio;crystal-less clock generator;duty-cycled wake-up radio;frequency 17.7 MHz;frequency 2.4 GHz;impulse radio;medium access control protocol;power 100 muW;ultra-low-power radio;wireless sensor network;Crystal-less clock;EDICS Category: COMM110A5, COMM200, COMM250A5;impulse radio;ultra-low power (ULP);wake-up radio;wireless sensor network (WSN).
    Abstract: ...
    This study describes a method of implementing a fully integrated ultra-low-power (ULP) radio for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). This is achieved using an ad hoc modulation scheme (impulse radio), with a bandwidth of 17.7 MHz in the 2.4 GHz-ISM band and a specific medium access control (MAC) protocol, based on a duty-cycled wake-up radio and a crystal-less clock generator. It is shown that the total average power consumption is expected to be less than 100 µW with a clock generator inaccuracy of only 1%.

  189. A Low-Voltage Mobility-Based Frequency Reference for Crystal-Less ULP Radios
    Fabio Sebastiano; Lucien J. Breems; Kofi A.A. Makinwa; Salvatore Drago; Domine M.W. Leenaerts; Bram Nauta;
    {IEEE} J. Solid-State Circuits,
    Volume 44, Issue 7, pp. 2002 -2009, July 2009. DOI: 10.1109/JSSC.2009.2020247
    Keywords: CMOS integrated circuits;MOSFET;wireless sensor networks;CMOS technology;MOS transistor;crystal-less ULP radios;current 34 muA;electron mobility;frequency 100 kHz;low-voltage low-power circuit;low-voltage mobility-based frequency reference;size 65 nm;temperature -22 degC to 85 degC;temperature 293 K to 298 K;voltage 1.2 V;wireless sensor networks;CMOS technology;Circuits;Electron mobility;Energy consumption;Frequency synchronization;MOSFETs;Oscillators;Silicon;Temperature sensors;Wireless sensor networks;CMOS analog integrated circuits;Charge carrier mobility;crystal-less clock;low voltage;relaxation oscillators;ultra-low power;wireless sensor networks.
    Abstract: ...
    The design of a 100 kHz frequency reference based on the electron mobility in a MOS transistor is presented. The proposed low-voltage low-power circuit requires no off-chip components, making it suitable for application in wireless sensor networks (WSN). After a single-point calibration, the spread of its output frequency is less than 1.1% (3σ) over the temperature range from -22 °C to 85 °C . Fabricated in a baseline 65 nm CMOS technology, the frequency reference circuit occupies 0.11 mm² and draws 34 µA from a 1.2 V supply at room temperature.

  190. Dynamic offset compensated CMOS amplifiers
    J.F. Witte; K.A.A. Makinwa; J.H. Huijsing;
    Springer, , 2009.

  191. A low noise current feedback instrumentation amplifier for high precision thermistor bridge
    Wu Rong; K.A.A. Makinwa; J.H. Huijsing;
    s.n. (Ed.);
    Sense of Contact 2009, , pp. 01-04, 2009.

  192. CMOS temperature sensors based on thermal diffusion
    C.P.L. van Vroonhoven; S.M. Kashmiri; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    s.n. (Ed.);
    Sense of Contact 2009, , pp. 1-4, 2009.

  193. Linearization of a thermal diffusivity based temperature sensor
    C.P.L. van Vroonhoven; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    s.n. (Ed.);
    IEEE Sensors, , pp. 1697-1700, 2009.

  194. Implementation and Characterization of a femto-Farad Capacitive Sensor for pico-Liter Liquid Monitoring
    J. Wei; C. Yue; ZL. Chen; Z.W. Liu; K.A.A. Makinwa; P.M. Sarro;
    In J Brugger; D Briand (Ed.), Proceeding of EUROSENSORS XXIII,
    Elsevier, pp. 120-123, 2009.

  195. CMOS temperature sensors based on thermal diffusion
    C.P.L. van Vroonhoven; S.M. Kashmiri; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In s.n. (Ed.), Proceedings of the international workshop on thermal investigations of ICs and systems,
    Therminic 2009, pp. 140-143, 2009.

  196. Measuring the thermal diffusivity of CMOS chips
    S.M. Kashmiri; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In s.n. (Ed.), Proceedings of IEEE Sensors 2009,
    IEEE, pp. 45-48, 2009.

  197. A multi-bit cascade sigma-delta modulator with an oversampled single-bit DAC
    S.M. Kashmiri; K.A.A. Makinwa; L.J. Breems;
    In s.n. (Ed.), Proceedings of ICECS 2009,
    ICECS, pp. 49-52, 2009.

  198. A multi bit cascaded sigma delta modulator with an oversampled single bit DAC
    S.M. Kashmiri; K.A.A. Makinwa; L.J. Breems;
    In s.n. (Ed.), Proceedings of International Conference on Electronics Circuits and Systems,
    ICECS, pp. 49-52, 2009.

  199. A digitally assisted electrothermal frequency locked loop
    S.M. Kashmiri; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In D Tsoukalas; Y Papananos (Ed.), Proceedings of ESSCIRC 2009,
    ESSCIRC, pp. 296-299, 2009.

  200. A chopper and auto-zero offset-stabilized CMOS instrumentation amplifier
    J.F. Witte; J.H. Huijsing; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In K Yano (Ed.), IEEE Digest of VLSI Circuits 2009,
    IEEE, pp. 210-211, 2009.

  201. A 200 µA duty-cycled PLL for wireless sensor nodes
    Salvatore Drago; Domine M.W. Leenaerts; Bram Nauta; Fabio Sebastiano; Kofi A.A. Makinwa; Lucien J. Breems;
    In Proc. European Solid-State Circuits Conference,
    Athens, Greece, pp. 132 - 135, September14--18 2009. DOI: 10.1109/ESSCIRC.2009.5325979
    Keywords: CMOS integrated circuits;UHF detectors;detector circuits;frequency synthesizers;low-power electronics;phase locked loops;wireless sensor networks;CMOS process;burst mode;current 200 muA;duty cycled PLL;frequency 1 GHz;low power frequency synthesizer;size 0.15 mm;size 0.19 mm;size 65 nm;voltage 1.3 V;wireless sensor nodes;Phase locked loops;Wireless sensor networks.
    Abstract: ...
    A duty-cycled PLL operating in burst mode is presented. It is an essential building block of a moderately accurate low-power frequency synthesizer suitable for use in nodes for wireless sensor networks. Once in lock, the PLL's frequency error is less than 0.1% (rms). Fabricated in a baseline 65 nm CMOS process, the PLL occupies 0.19 times 0.15 mm² and draws 200 µA from a 1.3-V supply when generating a 1 GHz signal with a duty cycle of 10%.

  202. A CMOS smart temperature sensor with a batch-calibrated inaccuracy of ±0.25°C (3σ) from -70°C to 130°C
    A. L. Aita; M. Pertijs; K. Makinwa; J. H. Huijsing;
    In Dig. Techn. Papers IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC),
    IEEE, pp. 342‒343, February 2009. DOI: 10.1109/ISSCC.2009.4977448
    Abstract: ...
    A major contributor to the total cost of precision CMOS temperature sensors is the cost of trimming and calibration. Significant cost savings can be obtained by batch calibration, but this is usually at the expense of an equally significant loss of accuracy. This paper presents a CMOS temperature sensor with a batch-calibrated inaccuracy of ±0.25°C (3σ) from -70°C to 130°C, which represents a 2x improvement over the state of the art. Individual trimming reduces the sensor's inaccuracy to ±0.1°C (3σ) over the military range: -55°C to 125°C. The sensor draws 25μA from a 2.5V to 5.5V supply, which is significantly less than commercial products with comparable accuracy.

  203. Oscillator based on thermal diffusion
    K.A.A. Makinwa; J.F. Witte;
    2009.

  204. Forewarned is four-armed;classic analog misteakes to avoid
    K.A.A. Makinwa;
    2009.

  205. Chopper stabilized amplifiers combining low chopper noise and linear frequency characteristics
    J.H. Huijsing; K.A.A. Makinwa; J.F. Witte;
    2009.

  206. Interface electronics for a CMOS electrothermal frequency-locked-loop
    C. Zhang; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits,
    Volume 43, Issue 7, pp. 1603-1608, 2008.

  207. A current-feedback instrumentation amplifier with 5 microvolts offset for bidirectional high-side current-sensing
    J.F. Witte; J.H. Huijsing; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits,
    Volume 43, Issue 12, pp. 2769-2775, 2008.

  208. High-speed sigma-delta converters
    M. Bolatkale; L.J. Breems; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    s.n. (Ed.);
    ProRISC, , pp. 143-148, 2008.

  209. The design of a chopped current-feedback instrumentation amplifier
    R. Wu; K.A.A. Makinwa; J.H. Huijsing;
    In s.n. (Ed.), ISCAS 2008, IEEE International Symposium,
    ISCAS, pp. 2466-2469, 2008.

  210. A current-feedback instrumentation amplifier with 5 microvolts offset for bidirectional high-side current-sensing
    J.F. Witte; J.H. Huijsing; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In s.n. (Ed.), Proceedings of ISSCC 2008,
    ISSCC, pp. 74-76, 2008.

  211. Fabrication of accelerometers by thin-SOI micromachining
    V. Rajaraman; L. Pakula; K.A.A. Makinwa; P.J. French;
    In s.n. (Ed.), Proceedings of sense of contact X,
    Sense of contact X, pp. 1-4, 2008. NEO.

  212. A temperature to digital converter based on an optimized electrothermal filter
    S.M. Kashmiri; S. Xia; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In W Redman-White; A Walton (Ed.), Proceedings of the 34th European Solid-State Circuits Conference, 2008. ESSCIRC 2008,
    IEEE, pp. 74-77, 2008.

  213. A CMOS temperature-to-digital converter with an inaccuracy of +_ 0.5degree celsius (3 ) from -55 to 125 degree celsius
    C.P.L. van Vroonhoven; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In {K.Pagiamztis L.C. Fujino, M.Amiri, G.Gulak}, S.Mirabbasi; R.Specner (Ed.), Proceedings of ISSCC 2008,
    ISSCC, pp. 576,577-637, 2008.

  214. Thermal diffusivity sensors for wide-range temperature sensing
    C.P.L. van Vroonhoven; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In s.n. (Ed.), Proceedings of IEEE Sensors 2008,
    IEEE Sensors, pp. 764-767, 2008.

  215. DRIE and bonding assisted low cost MEMS processing of inplane HAR inertial sensors
    V. Rajaraman; K.A.A. Makinwa; P.J. French;
    In s.n. (Ed.), Proceedings of ASDAM 2008,
    ASDAM, pp. 327-330, 2008.

  216. Fabrication of accelerometers by thin-SOI micromachining
    V. Rajaraman; L. Pakula; K.A.A. Makinwa; P.J. French;
    In s.n. (Ed.), Proceedings of sense of contact X,
    Sense of contact X, pp. 1-4, 2008. NEO.

  217. A low power chopper current-feedback instrumentation amplifier with noise PSD of 17nV/Hz
    R. Wu; K.A.A. Makinwa; J.H. Huijsing;
    In s.n. (Ed.), ProRISC, pp. 279-282, 2008.

  218. Impulse Based Scheme for Crystal-less ULP Radios
    Fabio Sebastiano; Salvatore Drago; Lucien J. Breems; Domine M.W. Leenaerts; Kofi A.A. Makinwa; Bram Nauta;
    In Proc. IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems,
    pp. 1508 - 1511, May18--21 2008. DOI: 10.1109/TCSI.2009.2015208
    Keywords: access protocols;ad hoc networks;clocks;low-power electronics;modulation;ultra wideband communication;wireless sensor networks;ad hoc modulation;crystal-less ULP radio;crystal-less clock generator;duty-cycled wake-up radio;frequency 17.7 MHz;frequency 2.4 GHz;impulse radio;medium access control protocol;power 100 muW;ultra-low-power radio;wireless sensor network;Crystal-less clock;EDICS Category: COMM110A5, COMM200, COMM250A5;impulse radio;ultra-low power (ULP);wake-up radio;wireless sensor network (WSN).
    Abstract: ...
    This study describes a method of implementing a fully integrated ultra-low-power (ULP) radio for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). This is achieved using an ad hoc modulation scheme (impulse radio), with a bandwidth of 17.7 MHz in the 2.4 GHz-ISM band and a specific medium access control (MAC) protocol, based on a duty-cycled wake-up radio and a crystal-less clock generator. It is shown that the total average power consumption is expected to be less than 100 µW with a clock generator inaccuracy of only 1%.

  219. A Low-Voltage Mobility-Based Frequency Reference for Crystal-Less ULP Radios
    Fabio Sebastiano; Lucien J. Breems; Kofi A.A. Makinwa; Salvatore Drago; Domine M.W. Leenaerts; Bram Nauta;
    In Proc. European Solid-State Circuits Conference,
    Edinburgh, UK, pp. 306 - 309, September15--19 2008. DOI: 10.1109/ESSCIRC.2008.4681853
    Keywords: CMOS integrated circuits;MOSFET circuits;electron mobility;integrated circuit design;low-power electronics;mobile radio;wireless sensor networks;MOS transistor;crystal less ULP radios;electron mobility;frequency 100 kHz;low voltage mobility based frequency reference;off-chip components;one point calibration;size 65 nm;temperature -22 degC to 85 degC;voltage 1.2 V;wireless sensor networks;CMOS technology;Calibration;Circuits;Energy consumption;Frequency;Oscillators;Silicon;Temperature distribution;Temperature sensors;Wireless sensor networks.
    Abstract: ...
    The design of a 100 kHz frequency reference based on the electron mobility in a MOS transistor is presented. The proposed low-voltage low-power circuit requires no off-chip components, making it suitable for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) applications. After one-point calibration the spread of its output frequency is less than 1.1% (3σ) over the temperature range from -22 °C to 85 °C. Fabricated in a baseline 65-nm CMOS technology, the frequency reference occupies 0.11 mm² and draws 34 µA from a 1.2-V supply at room temperature.

  220. On the Temperature Compensation of a Frequency Reference for Crystal-Less ULP Wireless Sensor Networks
    Fabio Sebastiano; Lucien J. Breems; Kofi A.A. Makinwa; Salvatore Drago; Domine M.W. Leenaerts; Bram Nauta;
    In Proc. ProRISC,
    Veldhoven, The Netherlands, pp. 306 - 309, September27--18 2008.
    Abstract: ...
    Each node in a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) must be provided with a frequency reference to enable network synchronization and RF communication. As the nodes need to be small, cheap and energy efcient, a frequency reference suitable for WSN must show low power consumption and require no off-chip components. A reference based on electron mobility in a MOS transistor demonstrates such features. Its output frequency follows the temperature dependence of mobility, which, although large, is well dened and can be compensated for. It is shown that a temperature sensor with accuracy of only 0.6 °C can be employed for the temperature compensation and that the inaccuracy of a compensated mobility-based frequency reference due to temperature, process spread, voltage supply variations and noise can be as low as 1% on a wide temperature range, fitting radio architectures for WSN applications.

  221. Voltage calibration of smart temperature sensors
    M. A. P. Pertijs; A. L. Aita; K. A. A. Makinwa; J. H. Huijsing;
    In Proc. IEEE Sensors Conference,
    IEEE, pp. 756‒759, October 2008. DOI: 10.1109/icsens.2008.4716551

  222. Sigma delta ADC with a dynamic reference for accurate temperature and voltage sensing
    N. Saputra; M. A. P. Pertijs; K. A. A. Makinwa; J. H. Huijsing;
    In Proc. IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS),
    IEEE, pp. 1208‒1211, May 2008. DOI: 10.1109/iscas.2008.4541641

  223. A BiCMOS Operational Amplifier Achieving 0.33μV/°C Offset Drift using Room-Temperature Trimming
    M. Bolatkale; M. A. P. Pertijs; W. J. Kindt; J. H. Huijsing; K. A. A. Makinwa;
    In Dig. Techn. Papers IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC),
    IEEE, pp. 76‒77, February 2008. DOI: 10.1109/isscc.2008.4523064

  224. Bitstream controlled reference signal generation for a sigma-delta modulator
    M. A. P. Pertijs; K. A. A. Makinwa; J. H. Huijsing;
    Patent, United States 7,391,351, June~24 2008.

  225. Multiple-ramp column-parallel ADC architectures for CMOS image sensors
    M.F. Snoeij; A.J.P. Theuwissen; K.A.A. Makinwa; J.H. Huijsing;
    IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits,
    Volume 42, Issue 12, pp. 2968-2977, 2007.

  226. A CMOS chopper offset-stabilized opamp
    J.F. Witte; K.A.A. Makinwa; J.H. Huijsing;
    IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits,
    Volume 42, Issue 7, pp. 1529-1535, 2007.

  227. An IF-to-baseband sigma delta modulator for AM/FM/IBOC radio receivers with a 118 dB dynamic range
    P.G.R. Silva; K.A.A. Makinwa; J.H. Huijsing; L.J. Breems; R. Roovers;
    IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits,
    Volume 42, Issue 5, pp. 1076-1089, 2007.

  228. High-Precision Read-Out Circuit for Thermistor Temperature Sensor
    R. Wu; K.A.A. Makinwa; J.H. Huijsing; S. Nihtianov;
    , pp. -, 2007.

  229. Standard CMOS Hall-Sensor with Integrated Interface Electronics for a 3D Compass Sensor
    J. van der MeerC; K.A.A. Makinwa; J.H. Huijsing; F.R. Riedijk;
    In s.n. (Ed.), Standard CMOS Hall-Sensor with Integrated Interface Electronics for a 3D Compass Sensor,
    IEEE, pp. 1-4, 2007.

  230. A CMOS image sensor with a column-level multiple-ramp single-slope ADC
    M.F. Snoeij; P. Donegan; A.J.P. Theuwissen; K.A.A. Makinwa; J.H. Huijsing;
    In s.n. (Ed.), Solid-State Circuits Conference, 2007. ISSCC 2007. Digest of Technical Papers. IEEE International,
    IEEE, pp. 1-4, 2007.

  231. The effect of substrate doping on the behaviour of a CMOS electrothermal frequency-locked-loop
    C. Zhang; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In s.n. (Ed.), Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Conference, 2007. TRANSDUCERS 2007. International,
    IEEE, pp. 2283-2286, 2007.

  232. Interface electronics for a CMOS electrothermal frequency-locked-loop
    C. Zhang; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In D Schmitt-Landsiedel; T Noll (Ed.), Proceedings of the 33rd European Solid State Circuits Conference, 2007. ESSCIRC 2007,
    IEEE, pp. 292-295, 2007.

  233. Low-power and accurate operation of a CMOS smart temperature sensor based on bipolar devices and Delta-Sigma A/D converter
    A.L. Aita; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In s.n. (Ed.), Proceedings Microelectronics and Electronics Conference, 2007,
    IEEE, pp. 133-136, 2007.

  234. Fabrication of a SOG-MEMS vibratory gyroscope by deep RIE technology and bonding (U_SP_2_I_IC_T)
    V. Rajaraman; G. Craciun; H. Yang; L. Pakula; EW.J.M. van der Drift; K.A.A. Makinwa; P.J. French;
    In {A. Liu, J.Wu, C. Lu}; {C.D. Reddy} (Ed.), MEMS Technology and Devices,
    pan Stanford, pp. 238-241, 2007.

  235. Electronics for Physicists: does the studio classroom solve the problem?
    K.A.A. Makinwa; E. Lagendijk; D.R. Schaart; E.H. van Veen;
    In {Gómez Chova}, L; {Marti Belenguer}, D; {Candel Torres}, I (Ed.), INTED2007 Proceedings,
    INTED, pp. 1-6, 2007.

  236. A three stage amplifier with quenched multipath frequency compensation for all capacitive loads
    J. Hu; J.H. Huijsing; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In s.n. (Ed.), Circuits and Systems, 2007. ISCAS 2007. IEEE International Symposium on,
    IEEE, pp. 225-228, 2007.

  237. DRIE assisted HAR MEMS processing of inertial sensors and actuators
    V. Rajaraman; S.L. Paalvast; G. Craciun; J.C. Wolff; K.A.A. Makinwa; P.J. French;
    In s.l. (Ed.), Book of Abstracts - 18th Workshop on MicroMechanics Europe, MME 2007,
    MME, pp. 333-336, 2007.

  238. Power and Area Efficient Column-Parallel ADC Architectures for CMOS Image Sensors
    M.F. Snoeij; A.J.P. Theuwissen; J.H. Huijsing; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In s.n. (Ed.), Proceedings IEEE Sensors 2007,
    IEEE, pp. 523-526, 2007.

  239. Low-power operation of a precision CMOS temperature sensor based on substrate PNPs
    A.L. Aita; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In s.n. (Ed.), Proceedings IEEE Sensors 2007,
    IEEE, pp. 856-859, 2007.

  240. Design of an optimized electrothermal filter for a temperature-to-frequency converter
    S. Xia; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In s.n. (Ed.), Proceedings Sensors, 2007 IEEE,
    IEEE, pp. 1255-1258, 2007.

  241. Smart sensor design: the art of compensation and cancellation
    K. A. A. Makinwa; M. A. P. Pertijs; J. C. van der Meer; J. H. Huijsing;
    In Proc. European Solid-State Circuits Conference (ESSCIRC),
    IEEE, pp. 76‒82, September 2007. DOI: 10.1109/esscirc.2007.4430251

  242. A CMOS Imager With Column-Level ADC Using Dynamic column Fixed-pattern Noise Reduction (U-SP-2-I-ICT)
    M.F. Snoeij; A.J.P. Theuwissen; K.A.A. Makinwa; J.H. Huijsing;
    IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits,
    Volume 41, Issue 12, pp. 3007-3015, 2006.

  243. A CMOS Temperature-to-Frequency Converter with an Inaccuracy of 0.5 degrees C from -40 to 105 degrees C (U-SP-2-I-ICT)
    K.A.A. Makinwa; M.F. Snoeij;
    IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits,
    Volume 41, Issue 12, pp. 1-6, 2006.

  244. A Solid-state 2-D Wind Sensor (U-SP-2-I-ICT)
    K.A.A. Makinwa; J.H. Huijsing; A. Hagedoorn;
    Lecture Notes in Computer Science,
    Issue 4017, pp. 1-8, 2006.

  245. An 118dB CT IF-to-Baseband/spl sigma//spl Delta/Modulator for AM/FM/IBOC Radio Receivers (U-SP-2-I-ICT)
    P.G.R. Silva; K.A.A. Makinwa; J.H. Huijsing; L.J. Breems; R. Roovers;
    s.n. (Ed.);
    IEEE, , pp. 1-10, 2006.

  246. A CMOS temperature-to-frequency converter with an inaccuracy of 0.5 degrees C from -40 to 105 degrees C (U-SP-2-I-ICT)
    K.A.A. Makinwa; M.F. Snoeij;
    s.n. (Ed.);
    IEEE, , pp. 1141-1150, 2006.

  247. A CMOS Imager with Column-Level ADC Using Dynamic Column FPN Reduction (U-SP-2-I-ICT)
    M.F. Snoeij; A.J.P. Theuwissen; K.A.A. Makinwa; J.H. Huijsing;
    s.n. (Ed.);
    s.l., , pp. 498-499, 2006.

  248. A CMOS Imager with column-level ADC using dynamic column FPN reduction (U-SP-2-I-ICT)
    M.F. Snoeij; A.J.P. Theuwissen; K.A.A. Makinwa; J.H. Huijsing;
    s.n. (Ed.);
    s.l., , pp. 2014-2023, 2006.

  249. Column-parallel single-slope ADCS for CMOS image sensors (U-SP-2-I-ICT)
    M.F. Snoeij; A.J.P. Theuwissen; K.A.A. Makinwa; J.H. Huijsing;
    s.n. (Ed.);
    Eurosensors, , pp. 1-4, 2006.

  250. Sigma Delta ADC with accurate dynamic reference for temperature sensing and voltage monitoring (U-SP-2-I-ICT)
    N. Saputra; J.H. Huijsing; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In s.n. (Ed.), Sigma Delta ADC with accurate dynamic reference for temperature sensing and voltage monitoring,
    ProRISC, pp. 1-5, 2006.

  251. A CMOS chopper offset-stabilized opamp (U-SP-2-I-ICT)
    J.F. Witte; K.A.A. Makinwa; J.H. Huijsing;
    In Ch Enz; M Declercq; Y Leblebici (Ed.), Proceedings of the 32nd European Solid-State Circuits Conference, 2006. ESSCIRC 2006,
    IEEE, pp. 360-363, 2006.

  252. Noise analysis of continuous-time /spl sigma// spl delta/modulators with switched-capacitor feedback DAC (U-SP-2-I-ICT)
    P.G.R. Silva; K.A.A. Makinwa; J.H. Huijsing; L.J. Breems;
    In s.n. (Ed.), Proceedings of the 2006 ISCAS Conference,
    IEEE, pp. 1-4, 2006.

  253. An 8-bit, 4-Gsample/s Track-and-Hold in a 67GHz fT SiGe BiCMOS technology (U-SP-2-I-ICT)
    D. Smola; J.H. Huijsing; K.A.A. Makinwa; H. van der Ploeg; M. Vertregt; L.J. Breems;
    In Ch Enz; M Declercq; Y Leblebici (Ed.), Proceedings of the 32nd European Solid-State Circuits Conference, 2006. ESSCIRC 2006,
    IEEE, pp. 1-4, 2006.

  254. A 110dB dynamic range continuous-time IF-to-baseband sigma-delta modulator for AM/FM/IBOC receivers (U-SP-2-I-ICT)
    P.G.R. Silva; L.J. Breems; K.A.A. Makinwa; J.H. Huijsing;
    In s.n. (Ed.), Proceedings of the 2006 ISCAS Conference,
    IEEE, pp. 1-4, 2006.

  255. "Column-parallel Single Slope ADCs for CMOS Image Sensors" (U-SP-2-I-ICT)
    M.F. Snoeij; A.J.P. Theuwissen; K.A.A. Makinwa; J.H. Huijsing;
    In s.n. (Ed.), Eurosensors XX 2006,
    Eurosensors, pp. 284-287, 2006.

  256. Sigma Delta ADC with Accurate Dynamic Reference for Temperature Sensing and Voltage Monitoring
    N. Saputra; M. A. P. Pertijs; K. A. A. Makinwa; J. H. Huijsing;
    In Annual Workshop on Circuits, Systems and Signal Processing (ProRISC),
    The Netherlands, pp. 80‒84, November 2006.

  257. A Servo Format for Disks, Preferably Hard Disks (U-SP-2-I-ICT)
    K.A.A. Makinwa; W. Bergmans;
    2006.

  258. Oscillator based on thermal diffusion (U_SP_2_I_IC_T)
    K.A.A. Makinwa; J.F. Witte;
    2006.

  259. A CMOS smart temperature sensor with a 3σ inaccuracy of ±0.1°C from -55°C to 125°C
    M. A. P. Pertijs; K. A. A. Makinwa; J. H. Huijsing;
    IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits,
    Volume 40, Issue 12, pp. 2805‒2815, December 2005. (JSSC Best Paper Award). DOI: 10.1109/JSSC.2005.858476
    Abstract: ...
    A smart temperature sensor in 0.7 μm CMOS is accurate to within ±0.1°C (3σ) over the full military temperature range of -55°C to 125°C. The sensor uses substrate PNP transistors to measure temperature. Errors resulting from nonidealities in the readout circuitry are reduced to the 0.01°C level. This is achieved by using dynamic element matching, a chopped current-gain independent PTAT bias circuit, and a low-offset second-order sigma-delta ADC that combines chopping and correlated double sampling. Spread of the base-emitter voltage characteristics of the substrate PNP transistors is compensated by trimming, based on a calibration at one temperature. A high trimming resolution is obtained by using a sigma-delta current DAC to fine-tune the bias current of the bipolar transistors.

  260. Low-Cost Epoxy Packaging of CMOS Hall-effect Compasses (U-SP-2-I-ICT)
    J. van der Meer; F.R. Riedijk; E.J. van Kampen; K.A.A. Makinwa; J.H. Huijsing;
    s.n. (Ed.);
    IEEE, , pp. 65-68, 2005.

  261. Low-cost epoxy packaging of CMOS Hall-effect compasses (U-SP-2-I-ICT)
    J. van der Meer; K.A.A. Makinwa; J.H. Huijsing; F.R. Riedijk; E.J. van Kampen;
    s.n. (Ed.);
    IEEE, , pp. 65-68, 2005.

  262. A temperature sensor based on a thermal oscillator (U-SP-2-I-ICT)
    K.A.A. Makinwa; J.F. Witte;
    s.n. (Ed.);
    IEEE, , pp. 1149-1152, 2005.

  263. A 2nd order thermal sigma-delta modulator for flow sensing (U-SP-2-I-ICT)
    K.A.A. Makinwa; J.H. Huijsing;
    s.n. (Ed.);
    IEEE, , pp. 549-552, 2005.

  264. A fully-integrated CMOS Hall sensor with a 4.5uT, 3s offset spread for compass applications (U-SP-2-I-ICT)
    J. van der Meer; K.A.A. Makinwa; J.H. Huijsing;
    s.n. (Ed.);
    s.l., , pp. 246-247-195,6, 2005.

  265. A fully integrated CMOS hall sensor with a 3.65/spl mu/T 3/spl sigma/ offset for compass applications
    J. van der MeerC; F.R. Riedijk; E.A. van Kampen; K.A.A. Makinwa; J.H. Huijsing;
    In s.n. (Ed.), ISSCC 2005 conference digest,
    IEEE, pp. 246-247, 2005. geen editors-sb.

  266. Ultra high-speed sampling track-and-hold amplifier in SiGe Bi-CMOS technology
    D. Smola; H. van der Ploeg; M. Vertregt; L. Breems; J.H. Huijsing; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In s.n. (Ed.), Proceedings of the STW annual workshop on semiconductor advances for future electronics and sensors (SAFE 2005),
    Technologiestichting STW, pp. 295-298, 2005. Editor onbekend, WPM/STW.

  267. A high resolution IF-to-baseband continious-time ¿¿ modulator for AM/FM/IBOC radio receiver
    P.G.R. Silva; L.J. Breems; K.A.A. Makinwa; J.H. Huijsing;
    In s.n. (Ed.), Proceedings of ProRISC 2005, 16th Annual Workshop on Circuits, Systems and Signal Processing,
    Dutch Technology Foundation, pp. 289-294, 2005. editors onbekend, sb.

  268. A 2nd order sigma-delta ADC as an interface circuit for SOI accelerometers
    Y. Yu; S. Butselaar; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    In s.n. (Ed.), Proceedings of ProRISC 2005, 16th Annual Workshop on Circuits, Systems and Signal Processing,
    Dutch Technology Foundation, pp. 316-319, 2005. Editor onbekend, JH/STW.

  269. A CMOS temperature sensor with a 3σ inaccuracy of ±0.1°C from -55°C to 125°C
    M. Pertijs; K. Makinwa; J. Huijsing;
    In Dig. Techn. Papers IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC),
    IEEE, pp. 238‒596, February 2005. ({ISSCC} 2005 {Jack} {Kilby} Award for Outstanding Student Paper). DOI: 10.1109/ISSCC.2005.1493957
    Abstract: ...
    A smart temperature sensor is accurate to within ±0.1°C (3σ) over the full military temperature range of -55°C to 125°C. This 5x improvement is achieved using DEM, a current-gain independent PTAT bias circuit, and a low-offset ΔΣ ADC combining chopping and CDS. The sensor is fabricated in 0.7μm 2M1P CMOS with 4.5mm² area and draws 75μA.

  270. Oscillator based on thermal diffusion (U-SP-2-I-ICT)
    K.A.A. Makinwa; J.F. Witte;
    2005.

  271. High speed, wide band, digital RF receiver front-end system
    D. Smola; M. Vertregt; H. van der Ploeg; L.J. Breems; J.H. Huijsing; K.A.A. Makinwa; P.G.R. Silva; J.M.V. Misker; Q Sandifort; A Emmerik; {van Donselaar}, B;
    STW, Volume Progress report , 2004.

  272. High speed, wide band, digital RF receiver front-end system
    D. Smola; M. Vertregt; H. van der Ploeg; L.J. Breems; J.H. Huijsing; K.A.A. Makinwa; P.G.R. Silva; J.M.V. Misker; Q Sandifort; A Emmerik; {van Donselaar}, B;
    STW, Volume Progress report , 2004.

  273. The effect of non-idealities in CMOS chopper amplifiers
    J.F. Witte; K.A.A. Makinwa; J.H. Huijsing;
    In SAFE c23891d54bc448e7886feafd1793b771 ProRISC 2004; Proceedings of the program for research on integrated systems and circuits,
    STW Technology Foundation, pp. 616-619, 2004. ed. is niet bekend.

  274. Method of Manufacturing an Electronic Device and Electronic Device (U-SP-2-I-ICT)
    K.A.A. Makinwa; S.G. den Hartog; P.J. French;
    2004.

  275. Method of manufacturing an electronic device and electronic device
    H. Boezen; S.G. den Hartog; P.J. French; K.A.A. Makinwa;
    2004. Koninklijke Philips Electronics NV/niet eerder opgevoerd; WO2004071943; Koninklijke Philips Electronics NV/niet eerder opgevoerd.

  276. Flow sensing with thermal sigma-delta modulators
    K.A.A. Makinwa;
    PhD thesis, Delft University of Technology, 2004.

  277. Compensation of packaging asymmetry in a 2-D wind sensor
    SP. Matova; K.A.A. Makinwa; J.H. Huijsing;
    IEEE Sensors Journal,
    Volume 3, Issue 6, pp. 761-765, 2003.

  278. Servo format for hard disks, preferably hard disks
    J.W.M. Bergmans; K.A.A. Makinwa; J.O. Voorman;
    2003.

  279. Constant power operation of a two-dimensional flow sensor
    K.A.A. Makinwa; J.H. Huijsing;
    IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement,
    Volume 51, Issue 4, pp. 840-844, 2002.

  280. A smart wind sensor using thermal sigma-delta modulation techniques
    K.A.A. Makinwa; J.H. Huijsing;
    Sensors and Actuators A: Physical: an international journal devoted to research and development of physical and chemical transducers,
    Volume A 97-98, pp. 15-20, 2002.

  281. A smart CMOS wind sensor
    K.A.A. Makinwa; J.H. Huijsing;
    IEEE International Solid State Circuits Conference. Digest of Technical Papers,
    Volume 45, pp. 432-544, 2002.

  282. Airflow sensors for thermal management
    K.A.A. Makinwa;
    Delft University of Technology, Faculty ITS, , 2002. Confidential.

  283. Modeling and compensation of packaging asymmetry in a 2-D wind sensor
    SP. Matova; K.A.A. Makinwa; J.H. Huijsing;
    s.n., , pp. 70-73, 2002.

  284. Modeling and simulation of thermal sigma-delta modulators
    K.A.A. Makinwa; V. Székely; J.H. Huijsing;
    In The frontier of instrumention and measurement,
    IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Society, pp. 261-264, 2002.

  285. An oscillator based on a thermal delay line
    J.F. Witte; K.A.A. Makinwa; J.H. Huijsing;
    In Proceedings of SeSens 2002,
    STW Stichting voor de Technische Wetenschappen, pp. 696-699, 2002.

  286. P2-14: Compensation of packaging asymmetry in a 2-D wind sensor
    SP. Matova; K.A.A. Makinwa; J.H. Huijsing;
    In Proceedings of IEEE sensors 2002: first IEEE international conference on sensors. Vol. II,
    IEEE, pp. 1256-1259, 2002.

  287. A wind-sensor interface using thermal sigma-delta modulation techniques
    K.A.A. Makinwa; J.H. Huijsing;
    Sensors and Actuators A: Physical: an international journal devoted to research and development of physical and chemical transducers,
    Volume 92, pp. 280-285, 2001.

  288. A smart wind-sensor based on thermal sigma-delta modulation
    K.A.A. Makinwa; J.H. Huijsing;
    In Springer, pp. 1-4, 2001.

  289. CMOS thermopiles for wafer-thick wind sensor
    SP. Matova; K.A.A. Makinwa; J.H. Huijsing;
    In {et al.}; DR Ivanov (Ed.), The tenth international scientific and applied science conference electronics ET'2001; proceedings of the conference book 1,
    Technical University Sofia, pp. 89-94, 2001.

  290. Industrial design of a solid-state wind sensor
    K.A.A. Makinwa; J.H. Huijsing; A. Hagedoorn;
    In SIcon'01: proceedings,
    IEEE, pp. 68-71, 2001.

  291. A wind sensor with an integrated chopper amplifier
    K.A.A. Makinwa; J.H. Huijsing;
    In SAFE - ProRISC - SeSens 2001: proceedings. Semiconductor Advances for Future Electronics - Program for Research on Integrated Systems and Circuits - Semiconductor Sensor and Actuator Technology,
    STW Technology Foundation, pp. 830-833, 2001.

  292. Thermopile design for a cmos wind-sensor
    K.A.A. Makinwa; SP. Matova; J.H. Huijsing;
    In {M Elwenspoek} (Ed.), Proceedings,
    Kluwer, pp. 77-82, 2001.

  293. Constant power operation of a two-dimensional flow sensor using thermal sigma-delta modulation techniques
    K.A.A. Makinwa; J.H. Huijsing;
    In IMTC'2001: proceedings,
    IEEE, pp. 1577-1580, 2001.

  294. A wind-sensor with integrated interface electronics
    K.A.A. Makinwa; J.H. Huijsing;
    In ISCAS'2001: CD-ROM,
    IEEE, pp. 356-359, 2001.

  295. A wind sensor with an integrated low-offset instrumentation amplifier
    K.A.A. Makinwa; J.H. Huijsing;
    In ICECS 2001: proceedings,
    IEEE, pp. 1505-1508, 2001.

  296. A smart wind sensor using time-multiplexed thermal Sigma-Delta modulators
    K.A.A. Makinwa; J.H. Huijsing;
    In ESSCIRC 2001: proceedings,
    Frontier Group, pp. 460-463, 2001.

  297. Analysis of a biphase-based servo format for hard-disk drives
    K.A.A. Makinwa; J.W.M. Bergmans; J.O. Voorman;
    IEEE Transactions on Magnetics,
    Volume 36, Issue 6, pp. 4019-4027, 2000.

  298. A wind-sensor interface based on thermal sigma-delta modulation
    K.A.A. Makinwa; J.H. Huijsing;
    In {R Reus}, de; {S Bouwstra} (Ed.), Eurosensors XIV,
    Mikroelektronik Centret, pp. 294-252, 2000.

BibTeX support